(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Bulletin"




■\i 









'i 


-1 ^' 


^k > v> ^ 


: < 


;: f 1 


^» ^ i' 5 


V 


^2\ 




? r -Vil 


^^ 


K 4 


^^ 


«« • 


^m3'^^ 


n 


* * ', 


-IHUNB '^mmSm*^. 


? 


^* 


r 'L 


c < 


^'>//^; 




■|^«a 


'\^\\ 




< u ^ ^ 






. ff 



r «r ^ - ti 



fc 



>?: 



,*''"I^.? T^*''**"*^ 






i 



-^^^^ 



MADKAS GOVEENMENT MUSEUM. 



Bulletin^ Vol. 11^ iVo. 1. 



r 



ANTHROPOLOGY 



Badagas and Irulas of the Nilgiris ; 
i Paniyans of Malabar ; A Chinese-Tamil Cross ; 

I k Cheruman Skull ; Kuruba or Kurumba ; 

I Summary of Results. 

With Seventeen Plates. 



BY 

EDGAR THURSTON, 

Sl-PERIXTEXDEXT. MADRAS GoVERXMEXT MuSEUM. 



— (''^ ii3f^^^ 



( 




V 



MADRAS: 

PRINTED BY THE SUPERINTENDENT, GOVERNxMENT PRESS. 



Pkice, I mxyee 4 annafi,'\ 18 9 7. 



nitrn$ ictumtm^nl ®«$$ii!it ^itlbtiit$. 



BY EDGAH THURSTON. 



Vol. L 



No. 1. — Pearl and Chank Eishehies of the Gtuli oi 
Mats^aar. 

No, 2. — Note on Tours along the Malabar Coast. 

No. 3. — Eamesyaram Island and Fauna of the Gum 
Manaar. 

No. 4.;— Anthropology of the Todas and Kotas of the 
V^ NiLGiRi Hills ; and of the Brahmans, Kaic- 

N MALANS, PaLLIS AND PaRIAHS OF MaDRAS CiTY. 



MADRAS GOVERNMENT MUSEUM, 



Bulletin, Vol. II, No. 1. 



ANTHROPOLOGY 



Badagas and Irulas of the Nilgiris ; 

Paniyans of Malabar ; A Chinese-Tamil Cross ; 

A Cheruman Skull ; Kuruba or Kurumba ; 

Summary of Results. 

With Seventeen Plates. 



BY 

EDGAR THURSTON, 

Superintendent, Madras Government Museum. 



MADRAS: 

PRINTED BY THE SUPERINTENDENT, GOVERNMENT PRESS, 

1897. 



5LR^ 



CONTENTS 



BaDAGAS of the NiLGIEIS 

Irulas of the Nilgiris 
Paniyans of Malabar 
A Chinese-Tamil Cross 
A Cheruman Skull 
kuruba or kurumba 
Summary of Results 



PAGE 


1 


- 7 


8- 


-17 


18- 


-30 


31- 


-32 


33- 


-37 


38- 


-43 


44- 


-68 



PL. f 






ANTHROPOLOGY. 



THE BADAGAS OF THE NILGIRIS. 

As the Todas are the pastoral, and the Kotas the artisan 
tribe of the Nilgiris, so the agricultural element on these 
hills is represented hj the Badagas (or, as they are some- 
times called, Burghers), whose number was returned as 
29,613 at the Census 1891 against 24,130 at the previous 
Census. But, though the primary occupation of the 
Badagas is agriculture, there are, among their community, 
bricklayers, carpenters, tailors, sawyers, barbers, washer- 
men, &c., and many work for Europeans as coolies on tea 
and coffee estates. 

The name Badaga or Vadugan means ' northerner,' and 
the Badagas, who speak a language allied to Kanarese, are 
no doubt descended from Kanarese Hindu colonists from 
the Mysore country, who migrated, probably about three 
centuries ago, to the hills owing to famine, political tur- 
moil, or local oppression in their own country. They have 
a tradition that five hundred years ago there were seven 
brothers living with their sister at a place called Badag- 
halli near Mysore. A Muhammadan Nawab fell in love 
with, and asked the permission of the brothers to marry 
the girl, and they, being afraid of him, ran away and 
settled on the Nilgiri plateau. 

Among the Badagas six distinct septs are recognised, 
viz. : — 



Udaya (or Wodeyar). 


Lingayats , 


High caste 


AdhikSri 


Do. 


Do. 


Kanaka 


Do. 


Do. 


HSruva 


Saivites . , 


Do. 


Badaga 


Do. 


Do. 


Toraya 


Do. 


Low caste. 



The Haruva, Adhikari, Kanaka, and Badaga septs are 
permitted to intermarry one with the other, whereas the 
Udayas and Torayas may only marry into their own sept. 



The Harnvas wear the Brahmanical thread, and it has 
been suggested hy Mr. Natesa Sastri that they were origin- 
ally poor Brahman priests, who migrated with the Badagas 
to the Nilgiris. The Torayas are the lowest sept, and do 
menial work for the other septs, which regard them as 
sons or servants. Toraya women are distinguished by 
wearing bangles of glass and base metal round the left 
wrist. The Udaya, Haruva, and Adhikari septs are vege- 
tarians, whereas the Kanakas, Badagas and Torayas are 
permitted to eat both animal and vegetable food. It is said 
that the vegetarian Adhikari, if he marries into a flesh - 
eating caste, betakes himself to the new diet very readily — 
more readily, in fact, than an Englishman of my acquaint- 
ance, who had to abandon his carnivorous habits as a condi- 
tion of acceptance by a vegetarian lady. 

Living in extensive villages, generally on the summit 
of a low hillock, composed of rows of comfortable thatched 
or tiled houses, and surrounded by the fields which yield 
the crops of korali {Set aria italica), samai {Panicum miliar e)^ 
&c., the Badagas would seem, at first sight, to be a pros- 
perous and thriving community as compared with the other 
tribes of the Nilgiris. A great newspaper discussion was 
recently carried on as to their condition, and whether they 
are a down-trodden race, bankrupt and impoverished to such 
a degree that it is only a short time before something must 
be done to ameliorate their condition, and save them from 
extermination by inducing them to emigrate to the Wyn§d 
and the Vizagapatam district. After reading much, and 
hearing and seeing more of the Badagas, I am on the side 
of one who wrote to the effect that " so far from approach- 
ing ruin, the Badaga is in a far better condition than he was 
some years ago. The tiled houses, costing from Rs. 250 to 
Rs. 500, certainly point to their prosperity. They may fre- 
quently borrow from the Lubbay to enable them to build, 
but, as I do not know of a single case in which the Lubbay 
has ever seized the house and sold it, I believe this debt is 
soon discharged. The walled-in, terraced fields immedi- 
ately around their villages, on which they grow their barley 
and other grains requiring rich cultivation, are well worked 
and regularly manured. The coats, good thick blankets, 
and gold ear-rings, which most Badagas now possess, can 
only, I think, point to their prosperity, while their con- 
stant feasts, and disinclination to work on Sundays, show that 
the loss of a few days' pay does not affect them.'' 



PL. II 



BADAGA MAN 



3 

The Badaga ceremonies and rites liave been so iullj de- 
scribed hj others ^ that I shall only touch lightly on this 
already well-trodden ground. 

In his religion the Badaga is polytheistic and a demonola- 
ter, worshipping a select number of major, and thirty-three 
crores - of minor gods, and attributing fever contracted 
by beiug out after dark, and other ailments and mishaps, 
to the influence of devils. Worship is performed in all 
manner of edifices, from a small jungle or road-side shrine 
to the big temple with gopurams at Karamadai at the foot 
of the hills, whereat the Badaga worships in common with 
other Hindu sects and Todas. Their gods are represented 
by human images of gold and silver, stone bulls and 
roughly-hewn stones, to which oblations of milk are offered 
when a cow refuses to give milk in proper quantity. In 
omens, both good and bad, they believe implicitly. Among 
the former are reckoned two Brahmans, a jackal, or a milk- 
pot in front, whereas a snake passing in front^ a woman 
with her hair down her back, a widow, or a single Brahman 
going before are harbingers of evil. 

The investiture of youths of the Lingayat sept with the 
badge of his religion, the linga or phallic emblem, which is 
tied round his neck, is the occasion of a solemn ceremonial, 
accompanied by payment of fees to the officiating priest, 
who acts as Grand Master of the Order, the pouring of an 
offering of the milk of cows and buffaloes into a rivulet, 
and a feast. When a Badaga lad has reached the youthful 
years at which he is expected to be of use to the commu- 
nity, he is instructed in the important duty of milking the 
cattle, and permitted to enter thenceforth within the milk- 
house (hagotu), wherein no female may set foot. 

In the Udaya sept, according to Mr. Natesa Sastri, there 
is nothing in the nature of courtship, but the father settles 
the bride or bridegroom for his child. In the other septs a 
simple form of sexual selection takes place, and engage- 
ment, soon followed by marriage on an auspicious day, is 
announced as the result of a brief period of courtship, 
which affords some opportunity for testing compatibility or 
incompatibility. The marriage bond is not, however, really, 

^ S. M. Natesa Sastri, Madras Christian College Magazine, April and 
May 1892, Vol. IX, Nos. 10-11 ; Grigg, Manual of the Nilagiri District, 
1880. 

2 A crore = 10,000,000. 



sealed until the fifth month of the first pregnancy, when 
the relatives are invited to be present at the ceremony of 
kanni-kattedu, or tying the marriage emblem round the 
neck of the woman. If, when he is performing this func- 
tion, the husband gets the string entangled in his wife's 
hair, he is fined for carelessness. As a sign that a girl has 
reached puberty, and is available for matrimonial purposes, 
she is tattooed on the forehead with a needle dipped in the 
blacks collected from a cooking-pot and mixed with oil. 

The funeral rites of the Badagas are carried out with a 
ceremonial very similar to that of the Kotas, which I have 
already described as an eye-witness (Bull : No. 4), and 
Kotas are engaged as musicians. In the course of these 
rites, an elder, standing by the corpse, offers up a prayer 
that the dead may not go to hell, that the sins committed 
on earth may be forgiven, and that the sins may be borne by 
a calf, which is let loose in the jungle, and used thence- 
forth for no manner of work. This Badaga custom of dedi- 
cating a scape-calf is of distinct interest, when compared 
with the Levitican dedication of a scape-goat. " But the 
goat on which the lot fell to be the scape-goat shall be 
presented alive before the Lord to make an atonement 
with him, and to let him go for a scape-goat in the wilder- 
ness, and the goat shall bear upon him all their iniquities 
unto a land not inhabited.*' (Lev. XVI, 10; 22). 

A quarter of a century ago, a Badaga could be at once 
picked out from the other tribes of the Nilgiris by his 
wearing a turban. But, in the present advanced age, 
when ' manners and customs ' are undergoing rapid modi- 
fication owing to the influence of domestication and contact 
with Europeans, not only does the Toda occasionally appear 
in the national head-dress, but even Irulas and Kurumbas, 
who, only a short time ago, were buried in the jungles, 
living like pigs and bears on roots, honey, and other minor 
forest produce, turn up on Sundays in the Kotagiri bazar, 
clad in turban and coat of EngKsh cut. And, as the less 
civilised tribes don the turban, so the college student 
abandons this picturesque form of head-gear in favour of 
the less becoming, and less washable, pork-pie cap, while 
the Badaga glories in a knitted night-cap of flaring red 
or orange hue. 

In colour the Badagas are lighter than the other hill- 
tribes, and the pallor of the skin is specially noticeable in 
the females, whom^ with very few exceptions, I was only 



r 



PL. III. 




^^' f 



BADAGA MAN. 



able to study hy surreptitious examination when we met on 
the roads. In physique the typical Badaga is below middle 
height, smooth-skinned, of slender build, with narrow chest 
and shoulders. 

Like other Kanarese classes which I have investigated, 
the Badagas have, as shown in the subjoined tabular state- 
ment, a short span of the arms relative to the stature, when 
compared with many of the 'i'amil classes : — 





Span of arms 




relative to 




statnre=100. 


Kotas. Kanarese ? 


103-3 


Koramas. Kanarese 


103-2 


Kurubas. Do. 


104-3 


Badagas. Do. 


104-6 


Kanarese Pariahs. Kanarese . . 


105-1 


Tamil Pariahs. Tamil 


106-1 


Tamil Brahmans. Do 


106-6 


Kammalans. Do 


1071 


Ambattans. Do 


107-2 


VeUalas. Do 


107-2 



The average distance from the tip of the middle finger 
to the top of the patella (knee-cap) in the position of * at- 
tention ' with the muscles of the thigh relaxed, is in the 
Badagas, as in two other Kanarese classes which I have 
examined (Kurubas and Koramas) considerable. But this 
character is discussed later on (p. 48). 

The average height of the Badaga, according to my 
measurements, is 164-1 cm. One man (not included in the 
averages), whose father was still taller than himself, was 
183 '2 cm. high. The measurements of this man, as com- 
pared with the Badaga average, were as follows : — 











Badaga average. 






CM. 


CM. 


Height . . 


• * t • 


183-2 


1641 


,, sittiDg 


, 






92-8 


84-6 


,, kneeling , 


t < 






134 


120-8 


Span of arms 


, 






193-2 


171-7 


Shoulders 


, 






44-3 


394 


Cubit 


, 






50-6 


46-2 


Hand, length 








19-5 


17-7 


Middle finger 


, 






13 


11-5 


Hips 








30-1 


26-6 


Foot, length 


. 






28-1 


25 


The typical tribal c 


ostume of the 


Badaga 


men consists 


of languti, white turba] 


a, and 


long 


body-cloth with red and 



6 

blue stripes wrapped round them ''so loosely that, as a man 
works in the fields, he is obliged to stop between every few 
strokes of his hoe, to gather up his cloth and throw one end 
over his shoulder." Male adornment with jewelry is 
limited to gold ear-rings, a silver bangle on the wrist, and 
silver, copper or brass rings. 

As types of female attire, jewelry and tattooing, the 
following ' cases ' may be cited : — 

Girl, aged 13. Tattooed on forehead (pi. iv-a i). White 
cloth covering body, and white undor-cloth tied round chest, 
tightly wrapped square across the breasts and reaching to 
knees. Gold ornament in left nostril, necklets c f small glass 
beads, and of large glass beads with two silvei ornaments. 

Woman, aged 30. Body clothing the same as preceding. 
White cotton cap on head (pi. iv). Tattooed on forehead 
(pi. iv-A 1); spot on chin; double row of dots on each 
upper arm over deltoids (pi. iv-a 2) ; and pattern on right 
fore-arm (pi. iv-A 3). Gold ornament in left nostril. Gold 
ring in lobe of each ear. Necklets of small glass beads and 
of silver links with four-anna piece pendent. Silver armlet 
above right elbow. Four copper armlets above left elbow. 
Four silver, and seven composition bangles on left fore arm. 
Two silver rings on right ring-j&nger ; two steel rings on 
left finger. 

Woman, aged 45. Tattooed on forehead (pi. iv-a 4) ; 
single row of dots over right deltoid ; pattern on left fore- 
arm (pi. tv-A 5) ; and three dots on back of left wrist. 

Woman, aged 35. Tattooed on forehead (pi. iv-a 1) ; 
quadruple row of dots over right deltoid ; and star on right 
forearm (pi. iv-a 6). 

Woman, aged 30. Tattooed like the preceding on fore- 
head and upper arm ; spot on chin ; elaborate device on 
right forearm (pi. iv-a 7) ; and star on back of right hand. 

Woman, aged 35. Tattooed like the two preceding on 
forehead and upper arm ; double row of dots and star on 
right forearm (pi. iy-a 8). 

Woman, aged 40. Tattooed like the three preceding on 
forehead and upper arm ; elaborate device on right forearm 
(pi. IV-A 3) ; triple row of dots on back and front of left 
wrist ; and double row of dots with circle' surrounded by 
dots across chest (pi. iv-A 9). 



PL. IV. 




BADAGA WOMAN. 



TABLE I. 



SUMMARY OF MEASUREMENTS. 
BADAGAS. 





Max. 


Min. 


Aver- 
age. 


Mean 
above. 


Mean 
below. 


Weight 


125 


90 


105 


115 


98 


; Height ... .:. 


180-2 


154 


164-1 


169-4 


159-9 


Height, sitting 


89-2 


80-7 


84-5 


87-3 


82-4 


Height, kneeling 


130-5 


114-3 


120-8 


124-1 


117-2 


Height to gladiolus 


138 


116 


123-7 


128 


119-9 


Span of arms 


191 


158-4 


171-7 


176-8 


166-7 


1 Chest 


87 


73 


80-4 


8-3 


77-7 


Middle finger to patella 


17-4 


7-8 


12-2 


14-5 


10-6 


Shoulders 


43-8 


36-2 


39-4 


40-7 


38-3 


Cnbit 


j 49-7 


42-6 


46-2 


47-5 


44-9 


Hand, length 


', 19-2 


16 


17-7 


18-2 


17-2 


Hand, breadth 


8-7 


7-5 


8-1 


8-3 


7-9 


Middle finger 


j 12-3 


10-7 


11-5 


11-9 


11-2 


Hips 


1 29-4 


24-3 


26-6 


27-5 


25-5 


^ Foot, length 


1 27-2 


23-2 


25 


25-7 


24-2 


1 Foot, breadth 


1 9-6 


7-8 


8-6 


8-9 


8-3 


Cephalic length 


20-2 


i IB 


18-9 


19-4 


18-4 


j Cephalic breadth 


1 14-5 


12-8 


13-6 


13-9 


13-3 


i Cephalic index 


1 77-5 


66-1 


71-7 


73-9 


69-5 


1 Bigoniac 


j 10-2 


8-6 


9-7 


10 


9-3 


j Bizygomatic 


; 13-5 


12 


12-7 


13 


12-4 


Maxillo-zygomatic index 


1 83-6 


67-2 


76-9 


79-4 


73-9 


Nasal height 


1 5-1 


4-1 


4-6 


4-8 


, 4-4;' 


\ Nasal breadth 


; 3-9 


3-2 


3-4 


3-6 


3-3 


\ Xasal index 

1 


1 88-4 


62-7 


75-6 


80 


71-4 


Vertex to tragus 


14-6 


12-7 


13-6 


14 


13-2 


Vertex to chin 


I 22-6 


19-7 


21-2 


21-8 


20-7 


Facial angle 


1 ^^ 


67 


71 


73 


68 



Kofe. — The results are based on the 
In this and the following tables, the 
measurements are in centimetres. 



measurement of forty subjects, 
weight is recorded in pounds ; the 



THE IRULA.8 OF THE NILGIEIS. 

For the purpose of comparing the characteristics of the 
five tribes which inhabit the Nilgiri hills, no better hunting 
ground can be selected than the Kotagiri bazar. There on 
market day (Sunday) may be seen gathei'ed together Todas 
from the distant Kodanad mand, Kotas from the adjacent 
Kota village, Badagas from the surrounding villages, and, in 
fewer numbers, Irulas and Kurumbas, who have walked up 
from their homes on the lower slopes to purchase the weekly 
supplies, laden with which they tramp cheerfully back in 
the afternoon. In distinguishing a Toda, Kota, or Badaga, 
no difficulty is experienced even on very slight acquaintance 
with them, but to decide between Irula and Kurumba is not 
nearly so easy ; and, when I have seen both together on a 
coffee estate, I have several times committed an error of 
diagnosis. The manager of an estate, after several years 
acquaintance with them, said he could always, without fail, 
distinguish a Kurumba from an Irula, although unable to 
explain exactly how he did so. He thought the difference 
was mainly in the more prominent cheek-bones and shorter 
and flatter noses of the Irulas.^ In the Manual of the Nil- 
giri District, 1880, Mr. H. B. Grrigg states that " the Irulas 
belong to a still more primitive race than the Kurumbas, 
namely, the Bedas or hunters of the forests of the peninsula. 
The opinion that the Nilgiri Irulas are allied to these 
B§das receives confirmation from the fact that they, like 
the Mysore Bedas, are worshippers generally of Vishnu, a 
remarkable circumstance considering the almost universal 
Sivaism of the aboriginal tribes of South India.'^ It was 
suggested, on the other hand, by Colonel Ross King * that 
the Irulas and Kurumbas were originally one, and that the 
slight physical differences between them may have resulted 
from the nature of their respective situations and conse- 
quent modes of life. At the present day both Irulas and 
Kurumbas are occasionally found living in the same ham- 
let (or motto). 

The hill Kurumbas (or Kurumans) it may be noted, en 
passant, are sub-divided by the Census Cornmissioner, 1891, 
into Mulla Kurumans, Vetta Kurumans, tJrali Kurumans, 
TSn Kurumans, and Tac'chanadan Muppan. Of these five 
sub-divisions my persuasive powers have so far permitted of 
my measuring only four Urali Kurumans — a meagre result 

« Breeks' Primitive Tribes of the Nilgiris. 
* Aboriginal Tribes of the Nilgiri hills. 



PLATE IVA 



0:0 



v^ 



> 



K 



/^ 



• • » 

• • • 



^ 



^^ 



> 



c 



r^ 



* 



0^0 

4 



rmrrn 



6 



* 



c: 



Badaga Tattoo Maries 



9 



for a long march . There is, howeverj a further sub-divisiou 
calling themselves Pala KiirumanSj who, like the Iriilas, live 
on colfee estates or in the jungles of the eastern slopes of 
the Nilgiris, and of these, with great difficultj, I succeeded 
in measuring eleven male individuals. Comparing their 
principal measurements, though the number is confessedl}' 
verj few^ with those of twenty- five Irulas, and, as a ' con- 
trol,^ with those of the sliort, broad-nosed Panijrans of the 
Wynad, the results pan out (to use a mining phrase) as 
follows :- — 





Irula. 


Knrnmba. 


Paniyan. 


Height 


159-8 1 158 


157-4 


Span of arms ... 


169-8 168-9 


165-2 


Span of arms relative to stature = 
100 


106-3 


106'9 


105 


Middle finger to patella 


10-7 


10-7 


7-3 


Middle finger to patella relative to 
statnre=100 


6-7 


6-8 


4-6 


Cabit 


45-8 


45-5 


45-3 


Hand, length ... 


17-5 


17-5 


18-5 


Foot, length 


24-9 


24-9 


25 


Hips 


25-4 25-3 


24-3 


Cephalic length 


18 18 


18-4 


Cephalic breadth 


13-7 


13-7 


13-6 
10 


Bigoniac 


9-7 


9-6 


Bizygomatic 


12-7 


13 


12-6 


Nasal height 


4-4 


4-3 


4 


Nasal breadth ... 


3-7 


3-8 


3-8 


Nasalindex ... 


84-9 


88-7 


951 


Vertex to chin ... 


20-7 


20-6 


19-8 



Further investigation of the Pala Kurumbas is, of course, 
necessarjr (though experience lead» me to anticipate no 



10 

marked variation from the averages obtained), but the 
figures afford, I think, evidence of a close affinity between 
the Irulas and Kurumbas. 

In my hunt after Irulas it was necessary to invoke the 
assistance and proverbial hospitality of various planters, 
without which my researches would have been barren. On 
one occasion news reached me that a party of Irula men, 
women, and children, collected for my benefit under a pro- 
mise of substantial remuneration, had arrived at a planter's 
bungalow, whither I proceeded. The partj included a man 
who had been ^ wanted ' for some time in connection with 
the shooting of an elephant on forbidden ground. He, 
suspecting me of base designs, refused absolutely to be 
measured on the plea that he was afraid the height-measur- 
ing standard was the gallows. Nor would he let me take 
his photograph, doubtless fearing (though he had never 
heard of Bertillonage) lest it should be used for the purpose 
of criminal identification. 

As the Badagas are the fairest, so the Irulas are the 
darkest-skinned of the Nilgiri tribes. The name Irula, in 
fact, as has often been pointed out, means darkness or 
blacknesB (Tamil irul)^ whether in reference to the dark 
jungles in which, the Irulas, who have not become domes- 
ticated by working as contractors or coolies on planter's 
estates, dwell, or to the great darkness of their skin, is 
doubtful. Though the typical Irula is dark-skinned, with 
broad nose and high nasal index, I have noted some who 
possessed skins of markedly paler hue and narrow noses. 
The nasal index of those who were examined ranged be- 
tween 70 and 80 in seven, between 80 and 90 in eleven, and 
between 90 and 100 in seven cases; the height of the nose 
ranging between 4'8 and 3-9 cm. and the breadth between 
4-3 and 3-2 cm. 

The language of the Irulas is a corrupt form of Tamil. 
In their religion, thej are worshippers of Vishnu under the 
name of Rangaswami, to whom they do puja at their own 
rude shrines, or at the Hindu temple at Karamadai, where 
Brahman priests officiate. In his '■ Primitive Tribes of the 
Nilgiris ' Breeks says that, "^ an Irula pujari lives near the 
temples, and rings a bell when he performs puja to the gods. 
He wears the Vishnu mark on his forehead. His office is 
hereditary, and he is remunerated by offerings of fruit and 
milk from Irula worshippers. Each Irula village pays about 



PL. V. 










IRULA WOMAN. 



11 

two annas to the pujari in Maj or June. They say that 
there is also a temple at Kallampalla in the Sattiyamanga- 
lam taluk, north of Rangaswami's peak. This is a Siva 
temple, at which sheep are sacrificed : the pujari wears the 
Siva mark. They donH know the difference between Siva 
and Vishnu. At Kallampalla temple is a thatched build- 
ing containing a stone called Mariamma, a form of Durga, 
the well-known goddess of small-pox, worshipped in this 
capacity hy the Irulas. A sheep is led also to this temple, 
and those who offer the sacrifice sprinkle water over it, and 
cut its throat. The pujari sits hy, but takes no part in the 
ceremony. The body is cut up, and distributed among the 
Irulas present including the pujari.'^ 

A village on a coffee estate, which I inspected, was, at 
the time of my visit, in the possession of pariah dogs and 
nude children, the elder children and adults being away at 
work on the estate. The village was protected against 
nocturnal feline and other feral marauders by a rude fence, 
and consisted of rows of single-storied dwelling houses, 
with verandah in front, made of spKt bamboo and thatched, 
detached huts, and an abundance of fowl-houses, and cu- 
curbitaceous plants twining up rough stages. Surrounding 
the village were a dense grove of plantain trees, castor-oil 
bushes, and cattle-pens. 

When not engaged in work on estates, the Irulas culti« 
vate, for their own consumption, ragi '{Eleusine Coracana), 
samai {Pmiicum miliar e)^ tenai (Setaria italica), tovarai 
(CajanuH indicv.s)^ maize, plantains, &c. I^hey will not attend 
to cultivation on Saturday or Monday. At the season of 
sowing Badagas bring cocoanuts, plantains, milk* and ghi, 
and give them to the Irulas, who, after offering them before 
their swami, return them to the Badagas. 

1 he Irulas will (so they say) not eat the flesh of buffaloes 
or cattle, but will eat sheep and goat, fowls, deer and pig 
(which they shoot)^ hares (which they snare with skilfully 
made nets), jungle-fowl, pigeons, and quail (which they 
knock over with stones). 

The Irulas, as a rule, have one wife. A young man of 
marriageable age selects a girl for himself, and gives her 
parents a present of money, varying from thirteen to 
twenty-five rupees, as a dowry. There is no marriage tali. 
At the marriage feast, which is of a very simple nature^ a 
sheep is killed, and the guests make a present of four to 



12 

eight annas to the bridegroom, who ties up the money in a 
cloth and goes to the bride's house to conduct her to her 
future home. Widows are permitted to re-marry. If a 
woman is barren, her husband may marry a second wife, 
but has to support the first. 

When an Irula dies, two Kurumbas come to the village, 
and one shaves the head of the other. The shorn man is 
fed and presented with a cloth, which he wraps round his 
head. Ihis quaint ceremonial is supposed, in some way, to 
bring good luck to the departed. Outside the house of the 
deceased, in which the corpse is kept till the time of the 
funeral, men and women dance to the music of the Irula 
band. The dead are buried in a sitting posture with the 
legs crossed tailor wise. Each village has its own burial 
ground. A circular pit is dug, from the lower end of which 
a chamber is excavated, in which tho corpse, clad in its 
own clothes, jewelry, and a new cloth, is placed with a lamp 
and grain. The pit is then filled in, ana the position of 
the grave marked by a stone. The following description of 
au annual memorial service was given to me. A lamp and 
oil are purchased, and rice is cooked in the village. They 
are then taken to the shrine at the burial ground, offered 
upon stones on which some of the oil is poured, and puja 
done. At the shrine a pujari, with three white marks on 
the forehead when on duty, officiates. Like the Badaga 
devadari, the Irula pujari at times becomes inspired by the 
god. 

The leading characteristics of the Irulas, the system of 
tattooing, and personal adornment, are summed up in the 
following* cases • — 

1. Man, aged 30. Sometimes works on a coffee estate. 
At present engaged in the cultivation of various grains, 
pumpkins, jack-fruit, and plantains. Goes to the bazar at 
Mettupalaiyam to purchase rice, salt, chillies, oil, &c. 
Acquires agricultural implements from Kotas at Kotagiri, 
to whom he pays annual tribute in grain or money. Wears 
brass ear-rings acquired from Kotas in exchange for 
vegetables and fruit. Wears turban and plain loin-cloth, 
wrapped round body and reaching below the knees. Bag 
containing tobacco and betel slung over shoulder inside 
cloth. Skin very dark. Moustache and slight beard. Hair 
cut short in front, long and tied in a knot behind. Hair 
feebly developed on body and limbs. Bushy eye -brows, 



r 



PL. vr 



o 

a, 
O 



13 



small, twinkling eyes. Bars outstanding. Prominent cheek 
bones. Lips tliin, not everted. 
Height 



Weight 

Chest 

Shoulders 

Span of arms 

Cubit 

Hand, length 

Foot, length 

Cephalic length 

Cephalic breadth 

Bigoniac 

Bizygomatic 

Nasal height 

Nasal breadth 

Nasal index 

Facial angle (of Cuv 



er) 



158-6 cm. 

100 lb. 
79-5 cm. 
37-8 „ 

168 „ 

44-3 „ 

16-6 -„ 

23-7 „ 

18 „ 

13-5 „ 

9-8 „ 

12-8 „ 

4-4 „ 

3-2 „ 

72-7 

69 



2. Man. Body cloth as No. 1 supplemented by coloured 
print cloth with brass buttons, and plain loin-cloth. Hair 
of head not shaved or cut, straggling and tied in a knot 
behind. Moustache, untrimmed whiskers, and billy-goat 
oeard. Prominent cheek-bones and zygomatic arches. 
Silver bangle on right wrist. 

'3, Man, Conjunctivae pigmented. Slight moustache. 
Bridge of nose broad. Hair rising in very stiff curls all 
over head. 

'4. Man. Pale by contrast with surrounding men. Hair 
when undone reaches in wavy locks to middle of back. 
Ornamental brass ear-rings in each lobe. Brass and glass 
bead ornaments in each helix. Steel ring on left little 
finger. 

5. Man. Weart^ turban, body-clotli with red and blue 
stripes, and loin-cloth. Hair curly with no parting, tied in 
a knot on top. Brass ear-ring in each lobe. Two brass 
rings on left little finger. 

6. Man. Head shaved on bop d Ui Hindu, and tied in a 
knot behind. 

7. Man. Two brass rings in lobe of each ear. Silver 
bangle on right wrist. 

8. Man. Brass ear-ring in lobe of each ear. Brass 
bangle on right wrist. (Ireenish-yellow irides. Brown 
moustache. 



14 

9. Thiu brass ring in helix of each ear. Brass link 
necklace. 

10. Man. Brass ear-ring of Badaga pattern in right 
lobe. Brass and glass ornament in left lobe. Brass ring 
on left little finger. Grass necklace. 

11. Man. Plug of wood in lobe and helix of each ear. 
One brass ring and two steel rings on left little finger. 

12. Man, Facial angle 60° (very low as compared with 
the average). 

13. Man suffering from leucoderma. Skin of face 
black with pink patch on forehead. Skin of body and 
extremities pink and white with dark and light brown 
patches. Growing bald. Only recognisable as an Irula 
by very dark face and broad nose. 

14. Boy, set. 10. String round neck and right wrist to 
drive away sickness. 

15. Woman^ 8et. 30. Height 144'8 cm. Hair curly, 
without parting, tied in a bunch behind round black cotton 
swab. Wears a plain waist-cloth and print cotton body- 
cloth, worn square across breasts and reaching below knees. 
Tattooed on forehead. A mass of glass bead necklaces. 
Gold ornament in left nostril. Brass ornament in lobe of 
each ear. Eight brass bangles on right wrist : two brass 
and six glass bangles on left wrist. Five brass rings on 
right first finger ; four brass and one tin ring on right ring- 
finger. 

16. Woman, aet. 25. Height 153"3 cm. Hair parted in 
middle, wavy, tied in a bunch behind. Bushy eyebrows. 
Red cajan roll in dilated lobes of ears. Brass and glass 
bead ornament in helix of right ear. Brass ornament in 
left nostril- A number of bead necklets, one with young 
cowry shells pendent, another consisting of a heavy roll of 
black beads. The latter is very characteristic of Irula 
female adornment (pi. vii). One steel bangle, eight brass 
bangles, and one chank-shell bangle on right wrist ; three 
lead, six glass bangles, and one glass bead bangle on left 
wrist ; one steel and one brass ring on left little finger. 

17. Woman, set. 35. Wears loin-cloth only. Breasts 
fully exposed. Cap of Badaga pattern on head. Massive 
brass ornament in lobe of each ear. Brass ornament in left 
nostril. Thirteen brass and two lacquer bangles on right 
forearm. Four brass rings on right thumb. Four brass 



PL. VI 







IRUI^A GIRIv. 



16 

rings on right second finger. Five brass rings on right 
rint^ finger. Six brass rings on right little finger. Five 
brass rings on left thumb. Four brass rings on left first 
finger. Four brass rings on left second finger. Seven 
brass rings on left ring finger. Seven brass rings on left 
little finger. 

Brass ring on second^ third- and fourth toe of each foot. 

18. Woman, set. 30. Elaborately tattooed across fore- 
head. Red cajan plug in lobe of each ear. Brass and glass 
bead ornament in each helix. Silver ornament in left nos- 
tril. Brass link and glass bead necklaces, one with young- 
cowry shells pendent. A black thread necklet with thread 
tassel pendent. Ten brass bangles, one chank, and one bead 
bangle on right wrist. Two silver, three lead, seven glass, 
and three composition bangles on left wrist. Two silver 
rings on left little finger. Two brass rings on right second 
toe. 

19. Grirl, aet. 16, Red cajan rolls in lobe of each ear. 
A number of bead necklets. Three steel armlets on right 
forearm. Nine brass bangles and one chank bangle on 
right wrist. One chank, two brass, and seven glass bangles 
on left wrist. Four brass rings on right little finger ; 
three brass rings on left first finger ; one brass and one 
steel ring on left ring-finger. 

20. Girl, get. 14. Height 1464 cm. Length of foot 
23-7 cm. ( = 16-2 relative to height==100). Very fair in 
contrast with the surrounding men. Bridge of nose broad 
and flat (a common type). Body-cloth of striped cotton, 
worn straight across breasts, and reaching below knees. 
Print cotton cloth thrown over shoulders and tied in knot 
in front. Wooden plug in left nostril. Mass of glass beac^ 
necklets. Four glass bangles on left wrist. One brass 
ring on left ring-finger. . Two base metal rings on right 
second toe ; a single base metal ring on left second toe. 

21. Girl, set 15. Tattooed on forehead. Pleasant ex- 
pression of countenance. Hair without parting, long, wavy. 
Mass of glass bead necklets. Gold ornament in lobe of 
each ear. Five glass bangles and one brass bangle on 
right wrist ; four glass bangles, and one brass bangle on 
left wrist. 

22. Girl, 86t. 8. Tattooed on forehead. Lobe of each ear 
being dilated by a number of wooden sticks like matches. 
Two glass bead necklets, and a necklet consisting of a 



16 

heavy roll of black beads. Left nostril pierced. Hair 
'mt short, oxct'pt a loug lock carried over top of head aud 
behind left ear. 

23- Girl, get. 8. Hair parted in middle, long, wavy. 
Bushy eyebrows. Jjonty, fiue liairs on forehead merging 
into hair of head. (The same liairy i^rowth on the fore- 
head I have noticed as beifiu- very prevalent among the 
Clieruman women of Malabai*.) Gold ornaments in left 
nostril and in lobe of each ear. One brass and eight glass 
bangles on right wrist ; one glass bead and six glass 
bangles on left wrist. 

24. Girl, let. 9. Tattooed on forehead. Wooden plug in 
left nostril. Mass of glass bead necklets, one with pendent 
beads and cowries. Nine brass bangles on right wrist ; 
four brass bangles on left wrist. 

25. Baby in * arms. Brass ring in lobe of each ear. 
Steel bangle on left ankle. 



17 



TABLE II. 

TABLE OF MEASUREMENTS. 
IRULAS. 





Max. 


Min. 


Aver- 
age. 


Mean 
above. 


Mean 
below. 


Weight 


140 


90 


101 


125 


94 


Height 


168 


152 


159-8 


162-9 


156-8 


Height, sitting 


86-8 


78-7 


82 


83-6 


80-4 


Height, kneeling 


124-2 


111 


117-5 


119-9 


115-6 


Height to gladiolus 


124-6 


115-6 


118-7 


121-5 


116-9 


Span of arms 


179-6 


160 


169-8 


174-2 


165-2 


Chest ... 


89 


73 


79-4 


82-5 


76-5 


1 Middle finger to patella 


14-6 


7 


10-7 


12-9 


9-4 


Shoulders 


42 


35-8 


38-5 


40 


37-7 


Cubit 


49 


42-5 


45-8 


47-2 


44-4 


Hand, length 


19-1 


16-3 


17-5 


18-1 


16-7 


Hand, breadth 


8-6 


7-3 


8-1 


8-4 


7-8 


Middle finger 


12-3 


10-5 


11-3 


11-7 


10-9 


Hips 


26-9 


241 


25-4 


261 


24-8 


Foot, length 


26-2 


23 


24-9 


25-5 


24-1 


Foot, breadth 


9-4 


7-8 


8-7 


9 


8-3 


Cephalic length 


191 


17 


18 


18-4 


17-6 


Cephalic breadth 


14-3 


13-1 


13-7 


14 


13-3 


Cephalic index 


80-9 


70-8 


75-8 


78 


73-8 


Bigoniac 


11-1 


9-1 


9-7 


10-1 


9-3 


Bizygomatic 


13-4 


11-9 


12-7 


131 


12-3 


Maxillo -zygomatic index 


84-6 


71-9 


75-7 


78-5 


72-7 


Fas al height 


4-B 


3-9 


4-4 


4-6 


4-2 


Nasal breadth 


4-3 


3-2 


3-7 


3-9 


3-5 


Nasal index 


100 


72-3 


84-9 


93-2 


78-4 


Vertex to tragus 


14-5 


11-6 


13-5 


13-9 


13-1 


Vertex to chin 


22-4 


19-2 


20-7 


21-4 


20 


Facial angle 


72 


60 


68 


70 


64 



NrAe. — The results are 
subjects » 



based on the measurement 



of twenty.five 
C 



18 

THE PANIYANS OF MALABAR. 

The Paniyans are a dark-skinned tribe, short in stature, 
with broad noses and cnrly hair, inhabiting the Wynad and 
those portions of the Ernad, Calicut, Kurumbranad, and 
Kottayam taluks of Malabar which skirt the base of the 
ghdts, and the Mudanad, Cherang6d, and Namblakod 
amshams of the Nilgiri district. 

A common belief, based on their general appearance, 
prevails among the European planting community that the 
Paniyans are of African origin, and descended from an- 
cestors who were wrecked on the Malabar coast. This 
theory, however, breaks down on investigation. Of their 
origin nothing definite is known. The Nair Janmis say 
that, when surprised in the act of some mischief or alarmed, 
the Paniyan calls out ' Ippi ' ! ^ Ippi M as he runs away, and 
they believe this to have been the name of the country 
whence they came originally ; but they are ignorant as to 
where Ippimala, as they call it, is situated. Kapiri (Africa 
or the Cape ?) is also sometimes suggested as their original 
habitat, but only by those who have had the remarks of 
Europeans communicated to them. The Paniyan himself, 
though he occasionally puts forward one or other of the 
above places as the home of his fore-fathers, has no fixed 
tradition bearing on their arrival in Malabar, beyond one to 
the effect that they were brought from a far-country, where 
they were found living by a Raja, who captured them_, and 
carried them off in such a miserable condition that a man 
and his wife only possessed one cloth between them, and 
were so timid that it was only by means of hunting nets 
that they were captured. 

The number of Paniyans, returned at the Census 1891, 
was 33,282, and nine sub- divisions were registered ; but, as 
Mr. H. A. Stuart, the Census Commissioner, observes : — 
" Most of these are not real, and none has been returned 
by any considerable number of persons.^' Their position 
is said to be very little removed from that of a slave, for 
every Paniyan is some landlord's ' man' ; and, though he is, 
of course, free to leave his master^ he is at once traced, and 
good care is taken that he does not get employment else- 
where. 

In the fifties, when planters first began to settle in the 
Wynad, they purchased the land with the Paniyans living 
on it, who were practically slaves of the land-owners. The 
Paniyans used formerly to be employed by rich receivers as 




PANIYAN MAN. 



19 

professional coffee thieves, going out by night to strip the 
bushes of their berries, which were delivered to the receiver 
before morning. Unlike the Badagas of the Nilgiris, who 
are also coffee thieves, and are afraid to be out after dark, 
the Panijans are not afraid of bogies by night_, and would 
not hesitate to commit nocturnal depredations. My friend, 
Mr. G. Romilly, on whose estate my investigation of the 
Paniyans was mainly carried'out, assures me that, according 
to his experience, the domesticated Paniyan, if well paid, is 
honest, and fit to be entrusted with the responsible duties 
of night watchman. 

In some localities, where the Janmis have sold the 
bulk of their land, and have consequently ceased to find 
regular employment for them, the Paniyans have taken 
kindly to working on coffee estates, but comparatively few 
are thus employed. The word Paniyan means labourer, 
and they believe that their original occupation was agri- 
culture, as it is, for the most part, at the present day. 
Those, however, who earn their livelihood on estates, only 
cultivate rice and ragi {Eleusine coracana) for their own 
cultivation ; and women and children may be seen digging 
up jungle roots, or gathering pot-herbs for food. They will 
not eat the flesh of jackals, snakes, vultures, lizards, rats, or 
other vermin. But I am told that they eat land-crabs, in 
lieu of expensive lotions, to prevent baldness and grey hairs. 
They have a distinct partiality for alcohol, and those who 
came to be measured by me were made more than happy by 
a present of a two-anna piece, a cheroot, and a liberal allow- 
ance of undiluted fiery brandy from the Meppadi bazar. 
The women are naturally of a shy disposition, and used for- 
merly to run away and hide at the sight of a European. 
They were at first afraid to come and see me, but confidence 
was subsequently established, and all the women came to 
visit me, some to go through the ordeal of measurement^ 
others to laugh at and make derisive comments on those 
who were undergoing the operation. 

Practically the whole of the rice cultivation in the 
Wynad is carried out by the Paniyans attached to the edoms 
(houses or places) or devasoms (temple property) of the 
great Nair landlords ; and Chettiyars and Moplahs also fre- 
quently have a few Paniyans, whom they have bought or 
hired by the year at from four to eight rupees per family 
from a Jenmi. When planting paddy or herding cattle, 



20 

the Paniyan is seldom seen without the kontaj or basket- 
work protection from the rain. This curious, but most effec- 
tive substitute for the umbrella-hat of the Malabar coast, is 
made of split reeds interwoven with arrow- root leaves, and 
shaped something like a huge inverted coal-scoop turned 
on end, and gives to the individual wearing it the appear- 
ance of a gigantic mushroom. From the nature of his dailj 
occupation the Paniyan is often brought in contact with 
wild animals, and is generally a bold, and, if excited, as he 
usually is on an occasion such as the netting of a tiger, a 
reckless fellow. The young men of the villages vie with 
each other in the zeal which they display in carrying out 
the really dangerous work of cutting back the jungle to 
within a couple of spear-lengths of the place where the 
quarry lies hidden, and often make a show of their indiffer- 
ence by turning and conversing with their friends outside 
the net. 

Years ago it was not unusual for people to come long 
distances for the purpose of engaging Wynad Paniyans to 
help them in carrying out some more than usually desperate 
robbery or murder. Their mode of procedure, when en- 
gaged in an enterprise of this sort, is evidenced by two 
cases, which had in them a strong element of savagery. On 
both these occasions the thatched homesteads were sur- 
rounded at dead of night by gangs of Paniyans carrying 
large bundles of rice straw. After carefully piling up the 
straw on all sides of the building marked for destruction, 
torches were, at a given signal, applied, and those of the 
wretched inmates who attempted to escape were knocked 
on the head with clubs, and thrust into the fiery furnace. 

The Paniyans settle down happily on estates, living in a 
settlement consisting of rows of huts and detached huts, 
single or double storied, built of bamboo and thatched. 
During the hot weather, in the unhealthy months which 
precede the advent of the south-west monsoon, they shift 
their quarters to live near streams, or in other cool, shady 
spots, returning to their head-quarters when the rains set in. 

They catch fish either by means of big flat bamboo mats, 
or, in a less orthodox manner, b}^ damming a stream, and 
poisoning the water with herbs, bark, and fruit, which are 
beaten to a pulp and thrown into the water. The fish, 
becoming stupified, float on the surface, and fall an easy 
and unfairly earned prey. 



21 

The Paniyan language is a debased Malayalam patois, 
spoken in a curious nasal sing-song, difficult to imitate ; 
but most of the Panijans employed on estates can also 
converse in Kanarese. 

"Wholly uneducated and associating with no other tribes, 
the Paniyans have only very crude ideas of religion. 
Believing in devils of all sorts and sizes, and professing to 
worship the Hindu divinities, they reverence e'specially the 
god of the jungles, Kad Eagavadi, or according to another 
version, a deity called Kuli,,a malignant and terrible being 
01 neither sex, whose shrines take the form of a stone placed 
under a tree, or sometimes a cairn of stones. At their rude 
shrines they contribute as offerings to the swami rice 
boiled in the husk, roasted and pounded, half-a-cocoanut, 
and small coins. The banyan and a lofty tree, apparently 
of the fig tribe, are reverenced by them, inasmuch as 
evil spirits are reputed to haunt them at times. Trees 
so haunted must not be touched, and, if the Paniyans 
attempt to cut them, they fall sick. 

Some Paniyans are believed to be gifted with the power 
of changing themselves into animals ; and there is a belief 
among the Paniyan dwellers in the plains that, if they 
wish to secure a woman whom they lust after, one of the 
men gifted with this special power, goes to her house at 
night with a hollow bamboo, and encircles the house three 
times. The woman then comes out, and the man, changing 
himself into a bull or dog, works his wicked will. The 
woman, it is believed, dies in the course of two or three days. 

Monogamy appears to be the general rule among the 
Paniyans, but there is no obstacle to a man taking unto 
himself as many wives as he can afford to support. 

Apparently the bride is selected for a young man by his 
parents, and, in the same way that a wealthy European 
sometimes sends his betrothed a daily present of a bouquet, 
the more humble Paniyan bridegroom-elect has to take a 
bundle of firewood to the house of his fiancee every day 
for six months. The marriage ceremony (and the marriage 
knot does not appear to be very binding) is of a very simple 
nature. The ceremony is conducted by a Paniyan Chemi 
(a corruption of Janmi) . A present of sixteen fanams (coins) 
and some new cloths is given by the bridegroom to the 
Chemi, who hands them over to the parents of the bride. 
A feast is prepared, at which the Paniyan women (Panichis) 



22 

dance to tlie music of drum and pipe. The tali (or marriage 
badge) is tied round the neck of the bride hy the female 
relations of the bridegroom, who also invest the bride with 
such crude jewelry as they may be able to afford. The 
Chemi seals the contract by pouring water over the head 
and feet of the young couple. A man may, I was told, not 
have two sisters as wives ; nor may he marry his deceased 
wife's sister. Re-marriage of widows is permitted. Adultery 
and other forms of vice are adjudicated on by a panchayat 
(or council) of headmen, who settle disputes and decide 
on the fine or punishment to be inflicted on the guilty. 
At nearly every considerable Paniyan village there is a 
headman called Kuttan, who has been appointed by the 
Nair Janmi to look after his interests, and be responsible to 
him for the other inhabitants of the village. The investi- 
ture of the Kuttan with the powers of office is celebrated 
with a feast and dance, at which a bangle is presented to 
the Kuttan as a badge of authority. Next in rank to the 
Kuttan is the Mudali or head of the family, and they usually 
constitute the panchayat. Both Kuttan and Mudali are 
called Moopenmar or headman. In a case of proved adul- 
tery a fine of sixteen fanams (the amount of the marriage 
fee), and a sum equal to the expenses of the wedding, 
including the present to the parents of the bride, is the 
usual form of punishment. 

No ceremony takes places in celebration of the birth of 
children. One of the old women of the village acts as mid- 
wife, and receives a small present in return for her services. 
As soon as a child is old enough to be of use, it accompanies 
its parents to their work, or on their fishing and hunting 
expeditions, and is initiated into the various ways of adding 
to the stock of provisions for the household. 

The dead are buried in the following manner : — A trench, 
four or five feet deep, and large enough to receive the body 
to be interred, is dug, dae north and south, on a hill near 
the village. At the bottom of this excavation the earth is 
scooped out from the western side on a level with the floor 
throughout the length of the grave, so as to form a recep- 
tacle for the corpse, which, placed on a mat, is laid therein 
upon its left side with the head pointing to the south and 
the feet to the north. After a little cooked rice has been 
put into the grave for the use of the departed spirit, the mat, 
which has been made broad enough for the purpose^ is 




PL. IX 



23 

folded up and tucked in under the roof of the cavity, and 
the trench filled up. It has probably been found by experi- 
ence that the corpse, when thus protected, is safe from the 
ravages of scavenger jackals and pariah dogs. For seven 
days after death a little rice gruel is placed at distance of 
from fifty to a hundred yards from the grave by the Chemi, 
who claps his hands as a signal to the evil spirits in the 
vicinity, who, in the shape of a pair of crows,- are supposed 
to partake of the food, which is hence called kaka conji 
or crow's rice. 

The noombu or mourning ceremonies are the ti polay, 
seven days after death ; the kaka polay or karuvelli held 
for three years in succession in the month of Magaram 
(January-February) ; and the matham polay held once in 
every three or four years, when possible, as a memorial 
service in honour of those who are specially respected. 
On all these occasions the Chemi presides, and acts as a 
sort of master of the ceremonies. As the ceremonial 
carried out differs only in degree, an account of the kaka 
polay will do for all. 

In the month of Magaram the noombu karrans or 
mourners (who have lost relatives) begin to cook and eat 
in a pandal or shed set apart from the rest of the village, 
but otherwise go about their business as usual. They wash 
and eat twice a day, but abstain from eating meat or fish. 
On the last day of the month, arrangements are made, 
under the supervision of the Chemi, for the ceremony which 
brings the period of mourning to a close. The mourners, 
who have fasted since daybreak, take up their position in 
the pandal, and the Chemi, holding on his crossed arms two 
winnowing sieves, each containing a seer or two of rice, 
walks round three times, and finally deposits the sieves in 
the centre of the pandal. If, among the male relatives of 
the deceased, one is to be found sufficiently hysterical, or 
actor enough, to simulate possession and perform the func- 
tions of an oracle, well and good ; but should they all be 
of a stolid temperament, there is always at hand a pro- 
fessional corresponding to the Komaran or Yillichipad of 
other Hindus. This individual is called the Patalykaran, 
With a new cloth (mundu) on his head, and smeared on the 
body and arms with a paste made of rice flour and ghi 
(clarified butter)^ he enters on the scene with his legs girt 
with bells, the music of which is supposed to drive away 
the attendant evil spirits (pay an mar). Advancing with 



24 

short steps and rolling his ejes, he staggers to and fro, 
sawing the air with two small sticks which he holds in 
either hand, and works himself up into a frenzied state of 
inspiration, while the mourners cry out and ask why the 
dead have been taken awaj from them. Presentlj a con- 
vulsive shiver attacks the performer, who staggers more 
violently and falls prostrate on the ground, or seeks the 
support of one of the posts of the pandp.l, while he gasps 
out disjointed sentences, which are taken to be the words 
of the god. The mourners now make obeisance, and are 
marked on the forehead with the paste of rice flour and ghi. 
This done, a mat is spread for the accommodation of the 
headmen and Chemi ; and the Patalykaran, from whose legs 
the bells have been removed and put with the rice in the 
sieves, takes these in his hands, and, shaking them as ho 
speaks, commences a funeral chant, w^hich lasts till dawn. 
Meanwhile food has been prepared for all present except 
the mourners, and when this has been partaken of_, dancing 
is kept up round the central group till daybreak, when the 
pandal is pulled down and the kaka polay is over. Those 
who have been precluded from eating make up for lost 
time, and relatives, who have allowed their hair to grow 
long, shave. The ordinary Paniyan does not profess to 
know the meaning of the funeral orations, but contents 
himself with a belief that it is known to those who are 
initiated. 

The women attend the ceremony, but do not take part 
in the dance. In fact, the nearest approach to a dance that 
they ever attempt (and this only on festive occasions) re- 
sembles the ordinary occupation of planting rice, carried 
out in dumb show to the music of a drum. The bodies of the 
performers stoop and move in time with the music, and the 
arms are swung from side to side as in the act of placing 
the rice seedlings in their rows. To see a long line of 
Paniyan women, up to their knees in the mud of a rice field, 
bobbing up and down and putting on the pace as the music 
grows quicker and quicker, and to hear the wild yells of 
Hon ! Hou ! like a chorus of hungry dogs, which form the 
vocal accompaniment as they dab the green bunches in from 
side to side, is highly amusing. 

The foregoing account of the Paniyan death ceremonies 
was supplied by Mr. Colin Mackenzie, to whom, as also to 
Mr. Fred. Fawcett, Mr. George Romilly, and Mr. Martelli. 



PL. X 



^ - . -r «ak^.». 




J 



-N 



PANIYAN WOMAN. 



25 

I am indebted for many of tlie facts recorded in tlie present 
note. From Mr. Fawcett the following account of a further 
ceremony was obtained : — 

At a Paniyan village, on a coffee estate where the 
annual ceremony was being celebrated, men and boys were 
dancing round a wooden upright to the music of a small 
drum hanging at the left hip. Some of the dancers had 
bells round the leg below the knee. Close to ihe upright 
a man was seated, playing a pipe, which emitted sounds 
like those of a bagpipe. In dancing, the dancers went 
round against the sun. At some little distance a crowd of 
females indulged in a dance by themselves. A characteristic 
of the dance, specially noticeable among the women, was 
stooping and waving of the arms in front. The dancers 
perspired freely, and kept up the dance for many hours to 
rhythmic music, the tune of which changed from time to 
time. There were three chief dancers, of whom one repre- 
sented the goddess, the others her ministers. They were 
smeared with streaks on the chest, abdomen, arms and legs, 
had bells on the legs, and carried a short stick about two 
feet in length in each hand. The sticks were held over the 
head, while the performers quivered as if in a religious 
frenzy. Now and again the sticks were waved or beaten 
together. The Paniyans believe that, when the goddess 
first appeared to them, she carried, two sticks in her hands. 
The mock goddess and her attendants, holding the sticks 
above the head and shivering, went to each male elder, and 
apparently received his blessing, the elder placing his hand 
on their faces as a form of salutation and then applying his- 
hand to his own face. The villagers partook of a light meal 
in the early morning, and would not eat again until the end 
of the ceremony, which concluded by the man-goddess seat- 
ing himself on the upright and addressing the crowd on 
behalf of the goddess concerning their conduct and morality. 

Games.— K long strip of cane is suspended from the 
branch of a tree, and a cross-bar fixed to its lower end. On 
the bar a boy sits and swings himself in all directions. In 
another game a bar, twelve to fourteen feet in length, is 
balanced by means of a point in a socket on an upright 
reaching about four feet and-a-half above the ground. Over 
the end of the horizontal bar a boy hangs, and, touching 
the ground with the feet, spins himself round. 

The Paniyans are, as already stated, of low stature, 
dark-skinned, with curly hair and broad noses. The great 



26 

breadth relative to tlie height of the nose is brought out 
by the following table of nasal indices, which ranged 
between 88-7 and 108'6 in the men, and between 82-5 and 
119'4 in the women : — 







NASAL INDEX. 




Men. 




No. 


Women. 


No 


80-90 


, , 


6 


80-90 


6 


90-100 


, , 


9 


90-100 


2 


100-110 


, , 


.. 10 


100-110 


o 






— 


110-120 


1 



25 



12 



The average height of the men, according to my obser- 
vations, is 15 7*4 cm., and of the women 146 cm. The men 
have verj long hands and feet. The average length of the 
latter (25 cm.j, in fact, exceeds the average breadth of the 
hips (24'3 cm.) by "7 cm.- — a difference in favour of the foot 
greater than in any of the other tribes which I have as yet 
investigated. The average distance from the middle finger 
to the patella is (in men) only 4*6 cm. relative to stature 
= 100, and approximates very closely to the recorded 
results of measurement of long-limbed African Negroes. 

The leading characteristics of the Paniyans, and their 
decollation with cheap jewelry, are summed up in the 
following descriptive cases : — 

1. Man, set. 30. Of sturdy build and muscular. Skin 
very dark. Hair of head clipped short in front so as to 
form a fringe. Long, wavy curls reaching down to shoul- 
ders. Long tail of matted hair worn as a vow_, hanging 
down back. Thread tied round right wrist as a charm to 
drive away fever, from which he suffers. Hair of body only 
well developed in axillae and over pubic region. Conjunc- 
tivae injected and pigmented. Iris very dark. Large, 
pendulous lobes to ears, which are pierced. Five brass 
rings in right ear, four in left. Nose as broad as high. 
Lips thick, everted. Not prognathous. Three copper, three 
brass rings, and a single steel ring on right ring-finger. 
Clothing consists of a plain loin-cloth reaching below knees, 
languti, and belt of European design round loins. ' 



27 



Height 


. 154-6 cm 


Weight 


94 lb. 


Chest 


84 cm 


Shoulders 


36-4 ,, 


Span of arms 

Cubit 


. 160-4 „ 
. 44 „ 


Hand, length 

Foot, length 

Cephalic length 

Cephalic breadth 

Bigoniac 


. 17-5 „ 
. 24-6 „ 
. 18-4 „ 
. 14 „ 
. 10 „ 


Bizygomatic 

Nasal height 

Nasal breadth 


. 12-4 „ 
3-8 „ 

3-8 „ 


Nasal index 


. 100 


Facial angle (of Cuvier) 


66° 



2. Man^ ^t, 25. Hair of head a dense mass of short 
curls with no parting. Lower lip much everted. Lobes of 
ears large and pendulous. Conjunctivae injected. Square 
face. Nasal index 108'6. Twelve brass rings^ removed 
from fingers while he is at work, tied up in loin-cloth. 
Thread round right wrist to ward off fever. 

3. Man_, aefc. 40-45. Hair exceptionally well developed 
on chest, abdomen, legs, and back. Bald on top of head. 
Seven steel rings on little finger. 

4. Man, aefc. 25. Mass of tufted curly hair standing out 
like a mop. Pot-bellied. 

, 5. Man. Steel bangle on right forearm. Three brass 
rings on each ring-finger ; two brass rings on each little 
finger. Three brass rings in each ear. 

6. Man. Two brass rings on right little finger ; one 
copper and one steel ring on left little finger. 

7. Man. Short, thin, matted tail, and long, broad, 
matted tail of hair hanging down back_, worn as a vow, 

8. Man. Thread round left ankle as a charm against 
sickness. 

9. Man. Chunam (lime) smeared over throat to cure 
cough. 

10. Boy, aet. 8. Long, curly hair parted in middle line. 
Brass ear-rings. Steel bangle on right wrist. 

11. Woman, faet. 20-25. Fat, squat, and uncomely. 
Skin very dark. Hair of head a dense mass of short cuils 



28 



without parting, reaching behind to nape of neck/ Nose 
considerably broader than long. Lips thick and everted. 
Lobes of ears enormously dilated by cajan ornaments. Iris 
very dark. Square face. Tattooed with a circle between 
eye brows. Two brass bangles on left wrist. Brass ring on 
left little finger. Outer clothing consists of a plain dirty 
cloth covering the body and tied in front in a knot. 



Height 


.. 144-8 cm. 


Weight 


. . 92 lb. 


Shoulders 


34-2 em. 


Cubit . . 


40-1 „ 


Hand, length 


17 „ 


Foot, length . . 


23-4 „ 


Cephalic length 


18 ,, 


Cephalic breadth 


13-7 „ 


Bigoniac 


10 „ 


Bizygomatic . . 


12 ,, 


Nasal height 


31 ,, 


Nasal breadth 


3-7 „ 


Nasal index . . 


.. 119-4 


Facial angle . . 


66° 



12. Woman, get. 25-30. Long,curly hair reaching below 
shoulders. Lobes of ears completely torn across as the 
result of dilatation by cajan ornaments. Long, brass link 
ear-rings in helix of ears. Steel bangle on left wrist. 

13. Woman. Thirty-one brass and steel rings tied up 
in her cloth. Left nostril pierced and plugged with wood. 

14. Woman. Wears string round neck as charm to 
cure sores. 

15. Woman. Hair of head cut short all over as a sign 
of mourning for her dead husband. Four brass bangles on 
left forearm. Glass bead necklet. 

16. Girl, set. 8. Hair in long, wavy curls ; cut in front 
so as to form a fringe. Left nostril pierced and plugged 
with wood. Brass ear-rings in helix of each ear. Lobes 
of ears being gradually dilated by cajan- roll ornaments. 



29 



TABLE III. 

SUMMARY OF MEASUREMENTS. 
PANIYAN MEN. 





Max. 


Min. 


Aver- 
age. 


Mean 
above. 


Mean 
below. 


Weight 


120 


89 


99-6 


104 
- 161-4 


94 


Height 


171-6 


152 


157-4 


153-6 


Height, sitting 


87 


77-6 


81-3 


83-4 


79-4 


Height, kneeling 


125-6 


111-7 


115-9 


118-5 


113-9 


Height to gladiolus 


130-8 


111-4 


1171 


120-1 


114-7 


Span of arms 


180-2 


148-4 


165-2 


170 


160-7 


Chest 


86-5 


77-5 


81-5 


83-4 


79-6 


Middle finger to patella 


10-2 


4-2 


7-3 


8-5 


5-8 


Shoulders 


38-5 


34-2 


35-9 


36-9 


34-9 

44 


Cubit 


49-4 


40 


45-3 


46-9 


Hand, length 


20 


15 


18-5 


19-1 


17-7 


Hand, breadth 


8-6 


7 


7-8 


8-2 


7-5 


Middle finger 


12-1 


10-1 


11-4 


11-8 


11-1 


Hips 


26-2 


23 


24-3 


25-1 
26 


23-7 


Foot, length ... 


26-7 


22-5 


25 


24-2 


Foot, breadth 


9 


7-7 


8-2 


8-5 


8 


Cephalic length 


19-3 


17-5 


18-4 


18-7 
141 


18 


Cephalic breadth 


14-9 


13 


13-6 


13-3 
72 


Cephalic index 


81-1 


69-4 


74 


76-3 


Bigoniac 


111 


9-1 


10 


10-4 


9-5 


Bizygomatic 


13-4 


11-8 


12-6 


13 


12-4 


Maxillo-zygomatic index ... 


86-6 


72-7 


78-9 


80-9 


75-3 


Nasal height 


4-8 


3-3 


4 


4-2 


3-7 


Nasal breadth 


4-2 


3-2 


3-8 


4 


3-6 


Nasal index 


108-6 


83-7 


95-1 


100-9 


88-2 


Vertex to tragus 


12-8 


11-6 


12-3 


12-6 


12 


Vertex to chin 


21 


18-5 


19-8 


20-1 


19-3 


Facial angle 


71 


65 


67 


69 


66 



Note. — The results are 
subjects. 



based on the measurements of twenty-five 



30 



TABLE IV. 

SUMMARY OF MEASUREMENTS. 
PANIYAN WOMEN. 





Max. 


Min. A^^^- 
age. 


Mean 
above. 


Mean 
below. 


Weight 


101 


72 


84-8 


92 


78-3 


Height 


155 


1341 


146 


150-9 


141-2 


Height, sitting 


80-8 


71-6 


751 


78-3 


72-9 


Height, kneeling 


114-6 


100 


107-9 


11V4 


104-4 


Span of arms 


161-2 


138-8 


152 


156-9 


146-4 


Shoulders 


36-8 


31-5 


33-2 


34-4 


32-4 


Cubit 


43-8 


37-8 


43-3 


43-5 


40-7 


Hand, length 


18-8 


15-5 


17-1 


18 


16-5 


Hand, breadth 


7-6 


6-8 


7-2 


7-5 


7 


Middle finger 


11-7 


9-8 


10-8 


11-3 


10-4 


Foot, length ... 


24-2 


20-7 


22-8 


23-6 


21-9 
7-3 


Foot, breadth 


8-1 7-1 


7-6 


7-8 


Cephalic length 


18-5 17 


17-5 


18-1 


17-2 


Cephalic breadth 


13-7 
80-6 


12-2 

70-8 


13-1 
74-9 


13-4 
77-3 

9-7 


12-8 

72-6 

9-3 


Cephalic index " ... 


Bigoniac 


10 


9 


9-5 


Bizygomatic ... 


12-9 


11-7 


12-1 


12-5 


11-9 


Maxillo-zygomatic index 
Nasal height ... 


83-3 


73-2 


78-5 


81 


76-2 


4-3 


31 


3-6 


4 


3-4 
3-2 


Nasal breadth 


3-7 


3 


3-4 


3-6 


Nasal index ... 


119-4 


82-5 


94-3 


105-7 


87-5 


Vertex to tragus 


12-5 


11-4 


11-9 


12-3 


11-7 


Vertex to chin 


19'8 
72 


17-7 


18-5 


19-1 


18 
65 


Facial angle 


64 


67 


69 



Note. — The results are based on the measurements of twelve subjects. 



31 



ON A CHINESE-TAMIL CEOSS. 

Halting in tlie course of a recent anthropological ex- 
pedition on the western side of the Nilgiri plateau^ in the 
midst of the Goyernment Cinchona plantations_, I came across 
a small settlement of Chinese, who have squatted for some 
years on the slopes of the hills between Naduvatam and 
Gudalur, and developed^ as the result of ' marriage ' with 
Tamil pariah women, into a colony, earning an honest liveli- 
hood by growing vegetables, cultivating coffee on a small 
scale, and adding to their income from these sources by the 
economic products of the cow. An ambassador was sent 
to this miniature Chinese Court with a suggestion that the 
men should, in return for monies, present themselves before 
me with a view to their measurements being recorded. The 
reply which came bacj^ was in its way racially character- 
istic as between Hindus and Chinese. In the case of the 
former, permission to make use of their bodies for the pur- 
poses of research depends essentially on a pecuniary trans- 
action, on a scale varying from two to eight annas. The 
Chinese, on the other hand, though poor, sent a courteous 
message to the effect that they did not require payment in 
money, but would be perfectly happy if I w'ould give them, 
as a memento, copies of their photographs. 

The measurements of a single family, excepting a 
widowed daughter whom I was not permitted to see, and 
an infant in arms, who was pacified with cake while I in- 
vestigated its mother, are recorded in the following table : 



TABLE V. 



t 




1^ 

Q 


.2:2 
-Eg 

6^ 






m ^ 
1" 


il 

12; 


Tamil Pariah 


Mother of children. 


18-1 


13-9 


76-8 
78-5 
80-1 
79 

82-4 
80-1 


4-7 
5-3 


3-7 

3-8 


78-7 
71-7 


Chinese 


Father of children. 


18-6 


14-6 

14'1 

14-8 

14 

13-7 


Chinese-Tamil 


Girl, aged 16 


17-6 


4-7 
4-fi 
4-4 
4-1 


3-2 
3-3 

3-3 

2-8 


68-1 
71-7 

72-7 
68-3 


Chinese- Tamil 


Boy, aged 10 


18-1 


1 Chinese-Tamil 


Boy, aged 9 


17 


Chinese-Tamil 


Boy, aged 5 


17-1 



32 

Tlie father was a typical Cliinaman, whose only griev- 
ance was that, in the process of conversion to Christianity, 
he had been obliged to ' cut him tail off.' The mother was 
a typical Tamil Pariah of dusky hue. The colour of the 
children was more closely allied to the yellowish tint of the 
father than to the dark tint of the mother ; and the semi- 
mongol parentage was betrayed in the slant eyes, flat nose, 
and (in one case) conspicuously prominent cheek-bones. 

To have recorded the entire series of measurements of 
the children would have been useless for the purpose of 
comparison with those of the parents, and I selected from 
my repertoire the lengch and breadth of the head and nose, 
which plainly indicate the paternal influence on the ex- 
ternal anatomy of the ofispring. The figures given in the 
table bring out very clearly the great breadth, as compared 
with the length of the heads of all the children, and the 
resultant high cephalic index. In other words, in one case 
a mesaticephalic (79), and, in the remaining three cases_, a 
sub-brachycephalic head (80*1 ; 80*1 ; 82*4) has resulted 
from the union of a mesaticephalic Chinaman (78*5) with a 
sub-dolichocephalic Tamil Pariah (76*8). How great is the 
breadth of the head in the children may be emphasised by 
noting that the average head-breadth of the adult Tamil 
Pariah man is only 13*7 cm., whereas that of the tjiree 
boys, aged ten, nine, and five only, was 14-3, 14, and 13*7 
cm. respectively. 

Quite as strongly marked is the effect of paternal influ- 
ence on the character of the nose ; the uasal index, in 
the case of each child (68*1 ; 71*7 ; 727 ; 68'3), bearing 
a much closer relation to that of the long nosed father 
(71"7) than to the typical Pariah nasal index of the broad- 
nosed mother (78' 7). 

It will be interesting to note, hereafter, what is the 
future of the younger members of this quaint little colony, 
and to observe the physical characters, temperameut, im- 
provement or deterioration, fecundity, and other points 
relating to the cross-breed resulting from the union of 
Chinese and Tamil, 



NOTE ON A CHEEUMAN SKULL. 

The Cherumaiis are a large caste, of low stature, very 
dark-skinned, and platyrrhinian (with wide nasal skeleton), 
inhabiting Malabar, where thej were formerly agrestic 
slaves^ and now work for the most part as field labourers. 

The skull, which forms the subject of the present note, 
is that of an old man without the lower jaw. 

Alveolar process of superior maxilla absorbed. 'Superci- 
liary ridges feebly developed. Serrations of coronal suture 
between frontal and parietal bones not developed for about 
'S'6 cm. on each side of the median line ; lateral serrations 
Une. Serrations of sagittal and lambdoid sutures coarse. 
Parietal eminences very prominent, the skull narrowing 
gradually from a breadth of 13'1 cm. across these eminences 
to a maximum breadth of 10*6 cm. across the lateral sur- 
faces of the frontal bone. A small wormian bone, 1*5 cm. 
long and 1 cm. maximum breadth, in the position of the 
anterior fontanelle at the junction of the coronal and sagit- 
tal sutures. A large wormian bone, 2 cm. long and 3 cm. 
maximum breadth, in the position of the posterior fontanelle 
at the junction of the sagittal and lambdoid sutures. Axes 
of orbits nearly horizontal. 

Profile of nasal bones concave. Nasal spine large. 
Antero-posterior arch elevated in parietal region. Hori- 
zontal arch prominent in parietal region. Transverse arch 
somewhat pointed m parietal region. 

Max : length from glabella . . . . 17-5 cm. 

Max : transverse breadth .. .. 13*1 ,, 

CephaKc index . . . . . . . . 74*9 

Min : frontal breadth . . . . . . 9*1 cm. 

Horizontal circumference . . . . . . 50 ,, 

Ant-posterior curve (nasion to basion) : — 

Frontal . . Tape 12 "3 cm. Callipers 10" 5 cm. 

Parietal* .. Do. 14-7 ,, Do. 12-2 „ 

Occipital .. Do. 14 „ Do. 10-5 ,, 

Basio-nasal length. . . . . . . - 9*4 cm. 

Basic-alveolar length . . . . . . 8'2 ,, 

Bizygomatic breadth .. .. .. 12-3 ,, 

Nasio-alveolar length . . . . . . 5'1 ,, 

Nasal height . . . . . . . , 4*6 ,, 

Nasal breadth . . . . . . . . 2*4 ,, 

Nasal index . . . . . . . . 54*3 

Orbital breadth . . . . . . . . 3'9 cm. 

Orbital height , 2*8 „ 

^ Including wormian bones, 



H 

The following averages of the head-measarements of 
tweaty-five living Cheraman men are recorded for compari- 
son, so far as is possible, with those of the single skull : — 

Living subject. Skull. 



Cephalic length 


CM. 

18-3 


CM. 

17-5 


Cephalic breadth 


13-5 


131 


Cephalic index 


73-9 


74-9 


Bigoniac 


9-9 




Bizygomatic 


12-6 


12-3 


Maxillo- zygomatic index 


79-6 


, , 


Nasal height 


4-4 


4-6 


Nasal breadth 


3-4 


2-4 


Nasal index 


781 


54-3 



A character, with which I am very familiar, when mea- 
suring all sorts and conditions of Natives of Southern India, 
and is well marked in the Cheruman skull and skulls of 
Pariahs, ' Hindus,' ' Telugus ' and a Brahman in my posses- 
sion, is the absence of convexity of the segment formed by 
the posterior portion of the united parietal bones. The 
result of this absence of convexity is that the back of the 
head, instead of forming a curve gradually increasing from 
the top of the head towards the occipital region, as in the 
European skull figured in plate xi. 1, forms a flattened area 
of considerable length almost at right angles to the base of 
the skull as in the ' Hindu ' skull represented in plate xi. 2. 
And to the existence of this character is due, in large measure, 
the short length of head in Irulas, Kongas and Koramans, 
which is referred to hereafter (p. 50). 

Some time ago, when passing through the Museum library, 
I found a student busily engaged in copying extracts from 
one of my publications, and sympathetically asked him with 
what object he was so doing. The uncomplimentary, but 
innocent, reply came forth : " Unfortunately for us it is one 
of our text- books." The same fate is presumably destined 
for the present bulletii?., which will, I fear, have to be 
studied by candidates for the M.A. degree of the Madras 
University in history, which includes ethnology with spe- 
cial reference to the Indian Peninsula. It is, therefore, not 
out of place to record (vide I'ables vi and vii) as a lesson in 
comparative craniometry, the more important measurements 
of a series of skulls, the property of the Madras Medical 
College, which constitute a loan-collection in the anthro- 
pological section of the Museum, where they are available 



PL. XI. 







SKUIvLS OF EUROPEAN AND HINDU. 



for study. Tlie number of tlie skulls is confessedly small 
for the purpose of generalisation, but analysis of the mea- 
surements, combined with examination of the skulls, will 
nevertheless not be labour lost. As a guide to the main 
points which should be observed, the following summary 
may be of use : — 

(a) The greater maximum length and horizontal circum- 
Terence of the skulls of the Europeans and Jew, as compared 
with the others. 

(b) The brachycephalic character, and consequent high 
cephalic index of the Mongolian, Andamanese, Cinghalese, 
and Burmese skulls. 

(c) The prevailing narrow frontal region of the skulls 
of the four South Indian classes, Muhammadans, Hindus, 
Brahman, and Cheruman. 

(d) The difference between the nasal skeletons of the 
platyrrhine (broad-nosed) Negro, with high nasal index, and 
the leptorrhine (narrow-nosed) European. 

(e) The marked prognathism of the skulls of Negroes. 



36 



TABLE VI. 

COMPAKISON OF MEASUREMENTS OF SKULLS. 





1^^ 


1^ 

•rH 72 


.2 

(B 

o 


1 


a 

'3 

1^ 


■♦3 

'a 


5 

cs 




Enropean ... 


19 


14-2 


74-7 


9-9 


55 


4-7 


2-5 


53-2 


European 


18-6 


14-6 


78-5 


9-7 


53-5 


5-6 


21 


37-5 


Jew 


19-3 


14-9 


74-1 


10-8 


56-3 


5-8 


2-6 


44-8 


Muhammadan 


18*2 


13 


71-4 


9-2 


51"6 


5-2 


2-6 


50 


Muhammadan 


17-2 


13-6 


79-1 


9-2 


49-5 


4-8 


2'4 


60 


Mnhammadan 


17-6 


13-5 


76-7 


8-7 


50-2 


4-3 


2-1 


48-8 


Muhammadan 


17-5 


12-6 


72 


9-1 


49-7 


4-4 


2-5 


56-8 


Tamil Hindu 


17-5 


13-5 


77-1 


9-3 


61 


4-7 


2 


42-6 


Tamil Hindu 


17-5 


131 


74-9 


9-1 


49-8 


5-4 


2-5 


46-3 


Tamil Hindu 


17-3 


12-9 


74-6 


91 


50 


4-8 


2-5 


521 


Tamil Hindu 


18 


13-4 


74-4 


10 


51-5 


4-5 


2-6 


57-8 


Tamil Hindu 


18-4 
17-4 


13-9 


75' 5 


9-5 


5z-8 


4-8 


21 


43-8 


Tamil Hindu 


13 


74-7 


9-6 


50 


5 


2-5 


50 


Tamil Hindu 


18 


13-4 
13-3 


74-4 


9-1 


51-8 


4-9 


2-5 


51 


Brahman 


17-7 


75-1 


91 


49-7 


4-5 


2-5 


55-6 


Chemman ... 


17-5 


131 


74-9 


91 


50 


4-6 


2-4 


52-2 


Negro 


171 


12-9 


75-4 


9 


49'6 


4-5 


2-4 


53-3 


Negro 


17-8 


12-9 


72-5 


9-9 


51 


4-6 

4-8 


2-8 


60-9 


Mongolian 


17-6 


14-3 


81-2 


9-5 


521 


2-6 


64-2 


Mongolian 


17-8 


14-5 


815 


9-2 


52*8 


5-2 


2-6 


50 


Andamanese 


16-1 


13-4 


83-2 


8-5 


48 


4 
5-2 


2-2 


65 


Cinghalese 


17-4 


14-8 


85-1 


9-9 


53 


2-6 


48-1 


Burmese 


16-4 


14*2 


86-6 


9-8 


51-3 


5'4 


2'6 


46-3 



St 



TABLE VII. 

AVERA.GES OF MEASUREMENTS OF SKULLS. 





Maximum length 
from glabella. 


as 

Is 

1^ 


i 
1 


3 

1 

11 

a-" 


Horizontal circum- 
ference. 


f 


■s 

1 

5I 


!25 


2 Europeans ... I 18-8 


u. 


76-6 


9-8 


54-3 


5-2 


2-3 


45-4 


1 Jew 19-3 


14-9 


74-1 


10-8 
9-1 


56-3 


5-8 


2-6 
2-4 


44-8 
51-4 


4 Muhammadans ... ; 17-6 


13-2 


74-8 


50-3 


4-7 


7 Hindus ... ; 17'7 


13-3 


75 


9-4 


50-1 


4-9 


2-4 


49-1 


1 Brahman ... 

1 Cheruman 

2 Negroes 

2 Mongolians 


17-7 


13-3 


75 


91 


49-7 


4-5 


2-5 


55-6 


131 


74-9 


91 
9-5 
9-4 


50 


4-6 


2-4 


54-3 


17-5 


12-9 


74 


50-3 
52-5 


4-6 
5 


2-6 
2-6 


57-2 


17-7 


14-4 


81-4 


521 


1 Andamanese 


161 

17-4 ! 

1 


13-4 


83-2 


8-5 i 

i 


48 


4 


2-2 
2-5 


55 
48-1 


1 Cinghalese 


14-8 


85-1 


9-9 


53 


5-2 


1 Burmese ... 


16-4 


14-2 


86-6 


9-8 1 

1 


51-3 


5-4 


2-5 


4G-3 



KURUBA OR KURUMBA ? 

As an introduction to the study of this intricate ques- 
tion, it will be best to commence hy quoting the opinions of 
various writers, who have entered superficially into it. 

Madras Census Report, 1891. — "The Kurumbas or 
Kurubas are numerous in Kurnool, Cnddapah, Bellary, 
Anantapur, North Arcot, South Arcot, Salem, Coimbatore, 
Trichinopoly and Madura. They are the modern represent- 
atives of the ancient Kurumbas or Pallavas, who were once 
so powerful throughout Southern India, but very little trace 
of their greatness now remains, in the seventh century the 
power of the Pallava Kings seems to have been at its 
zenith ; but shortly after this, the Kongu, Chola and Cha- 
lukya chiefs succeeded in winning several victories over 
them. The final overthrow of the Kurumba sovereignty 
was effected by the Chola king Adondai about the seventh 
or eighth century A.D., and the Kurumbas were scattered 
far and wide. Many fled to the hill^, and in the Nilgiris 
and the Wynaad, in Coorg and Mysore, representatives of 
this ancient race are now found as wild and uncivilised 
tribes. Elsewhere the Kurumbas are more advanced, and 
are usually shepherds and weavers of coarse woollen 
blankets. ^^ 

" Kuruman. — This caste is found in the Nilgiris and the 
Wynaad, with a slight shrinkling in the Nilambur anc^ 
Attapddi hills in Malabar, Their principal occupations are 
wood-cutting and the collection of forest produce. The 
name is merely another form of Kurumban, but, as they 
differ considerably from the ordinary Kurumbas, it seemed 
better to show them separately. I think, however, that 
tbey were originally identical with the shepherd Kurumbans^ 
and their present separation is merely the result of their 
isolation in the fastnesses of the Western Ghats, to which 
their ancestors fled or gradually retreated after the down- 
fall of the Kurumba dynasty. The name Kurumbrandd, a 
sub-division of Malabar, still bears testimony to their once 
powerful position. ^^ — H. A. Stuart. 

Mysore Census Report, 1891 — Kddu Kuruba or Kurumba. 
— " The tribal name of Kuruba has been traced to the pri- 
meval occupation of the race, viz., the tending of sheep, per- 
haphs when pre-historic man rose to the pastoral stage. The 
civilised IJor ru Kurubas, who are genuine tillers of the soil, 
and who are dotted over the country in populous and thriv- 
ing communities, and many of whom have under the present 
^ Pax Britannica ' further developed into enterprising trades- 



PL, XI 




KURUBA MAN. 



39 

men and witLal lettered Goyerument officials^ are the very- 
antipodes of the K4dn or wild Kurubas or Knrumbds. The 
latter, like the Iruligas and Soligas, are the denizens of the 
south and south- western backwoods of the country, and 
have been correctly classed under the aboriginal popula- 
tion/^ — V. N. Narasimaiybngae. 

Oppert : Original inhabitants of India — Kurubas or 
Kuruinbas. — ^' However separated from each oiher and 
scattered among the Dra vidian clans with whom they have 
dwelt, and however distant from one another they still live, 
there is hardly a province in the whole of Bharatavarasha 
which cannot produce^ if not some living remnants of this 
race, at least some remains of past times which prove their 
presence. Indeed the Kurumbas must b^ regarded as very- 
old inhabitants of this land, who can contest with their 
Dravidian kinsmen the priority of occupation of the Indian 
soil/' 

" The terms Kuruba and Kurumba are originally iden- 
tical, though the one form is in differept places employed for 
the other, and has thus occasionally assumed a special local 
meaning. xMr. H. B. Grigg appears to contradict himself 
when, while speaking of the Kurumbas, he says that ^ in 
the low country they are called Kurubas or Curubdru, and 
are divided into numerous families, such as the Ane or ele- 
phant, ndya or dog, Male or hill Kurumbas.' ^ Such a dis- 
tinction between mountain-Kurumbas and plain -Kurubas 
cannot be established. The Rev, G. Richter will find it 
difficult to prove that the Kurubas of Mysore are ojAj called 
so as shepherds, and that no connection exists between 
these Kurubas and the Kurumbas. Mr. Lewis Rice calls the 
wild tribes as well as the shepherds Kurubas, but seems to 
overlook the fact that both terms are identical, and refer 
only to the ethnological distinction. 

'' The stunted growth of animals and plants in cold, wet, 
and high elevations is a well-known natural law^ to which 
the human species has also to submit. In consequence of 
their loneliness and comparative physical weakness^ the 
small mountaineers, when they meet their taller but less 
clever neighbours of the plains, display often a. spiteful dis- 
trust, use poisoned arrows, and frighten them by their 
mysterious proceeding's into abject superstition. This is 
the reason why the Kurumbas of the Nilgiri hills are so 
ahimned/^ 

« Manual of the Nilgiri District, 1880, 



40 

King : Aboriginal Tribes of the Nilgiri Hille— Kurumbas. 
— " This tribe is of another race from the shepherd Ku- 
rumbas, described by Sir Walter Elliot as having a distinct 
priesthood, and worshipping the god Bhyra. The Nilgiri 
tribe have neither cattle nor sheep, and, in language, dress, 
and customs, have no affinity whatever with their name- 



The above extracts amply suffice for the purpose of 
showing that the distinction between Kuruba and Kurumba, 
and their relationship towards each other, call for a ' perma- 
nent settlement' by the application of scientific methods ; and 
the problem, which is no easy one, appears to depend essen- 
tially on anthropometric observations and a study of physical 
characters for its solution. This research, which must be 
carried out among the Kurumbas or Kurubas of the plains 
of Southern India, the Kurubas of the Mysore plateau, and 
the Kurumbas who inhabit the jungles, must of necessity be 
prolonged ; and I am at present unable to undertake it in its 
entirety. As a basis for future operations, I may, however, 
place on record the results of my investigations, so far as 
the jungle Kurumbas of the eastern slopes of the Nilgiris 
and the more highly civilised tJru Kurubas of the Mysore 
province are concerned. 

The picture, which is drawn by King ^ of the Nilgiri 
Kurumbas, is not a pleasant one. ^* Their chief food,'^ he 
says, " is wild roots and berries, or grains soaked in water, 
with occasional porcupines or polecats. Their dwellings are 
nothing more than a few branches piled up together like 
heaps of dead brushwood, in a plantation, often simply 
holes or clefts among the rocks. Their clothing is, with the 
males, a small dirty cloth round the loins ; and, with the 
females, a rag thrown on any way that its condition and size 
render most available. The appearance of these rude people 
is wretched, and even disagreeable. Low in stature, they 
are also ill-made ; the complexion is of an unhealthy hue, 
and their heads are thinly covered with mangy-looking hair. 
They have bleared eyes, a rather wide mouth, and often pro* 
jecting teeth. Spare to leanness, there is also a total absence 
of any apparent muscle, and the arms and legs are as much 
like black sticks as human limbs. No such ceremony as 
marriage exists among these people, who live together like 
the brute creation.'' A quarter of a century has elapsed 
since this description was written, and the fin de Steele 

' Aboriginal tribes of the Nilgiris, 1870, 



PL. XIII, 







'] 


,. 


•1-^.,, - '" 




J 






1 







KURUMBA MAN. 



41 



Kurumba, who works for regular wages on planters' estates, 
is more domesticated, better fed, better nourished, and better 
clothed. But hj no stretch of the imagination, can the 
dark-skinned, broad-nosed Kurumba, whose portrait appears 
on plate xiii be regarded as an example of a ^high type of 
civilisation. Nor would the light-skinned IJru Kuruba, 
with sharp-cut features, and aquiline nose, whose portrait is 
reproduced on plate xii, appreciate being linked in the 
bonds of common ancestry with the Kurumba. 

The average measurements of the Nilgiri Kurumbas and 
the Uru Kurumbas of Shimoga in the Mysore Province 
(some of whom are traders, or in the service of Government) 
are given in table viii. I would, however, invite more 
special attention to the subjoined tabular statement, wherein 
the averages, and maxima and minima of the more import- 
ant measurements, from a comparative point of view, are 
recorded with the object of bringing out the main points of 
difference between Kuruba and Kurumba. 





Knruba. 


Kurumba. 


1 


C5 

B 

5 


i 


1 


B 
"S 


1 


Height 


CM, 

176-4 


CM. 

155 


CM. 

163-9 


CM. 

163-6 


CM. 

149-6 


CM. 

157-5 


Span of arms 


184-4 


155-2 


171 


173-4 


156-6 


167-5 


Do. rel. to statiire=100 ... 






104-3 






106-3 


Middle finger to patella 


16-2 


9 


12-3 


12-6 


6 


9-8 


Do. rel. to stature=100. 


... 




7-5 







6-2 


Hips 


... 


... 


26-3 




24-5 


Foot, length ... 






25-1 






24-6 


Cephalic length 


19-6 


17 


18-3 


18-7 


16-9 


17-9 


Cephalic breadth 


15 


13-1 
71-6 


13-9 


14-5 


13 

71-8 


13-7 

77 


Cephalic index 


82-1 


75-8 


83-3 


Nasal height 


5-3 


4-2 


4-7 


4-4 


3-6 


4-2 


Nasal breadth 


8-9 


3-1 


3-4 


4-2 


3-4 


3-8 


Nasal index 


85-9 


62-3 


73-2 


111-1 


79-1 


88-8 



42 

Standing first in importance as distinguishing characters 
are stature and nose measurements. Coming under the 
heading ' below middle height' (163-9 cm.), with a maxi- 
mum recorded height of 176-4 cm. (very tall), the Kuruba 
is clearly differentiated from the Kurumba of low stature 
(157'5 cm.), whose maximum recorded height does not even 
reach the Kuruba average. More important, however, than 
stature, is the relation of height to breadth of nose ; and it 
is obvious that there is a very wide distinction between the 
Kurubas with an index (average 73"2) ranging between 85*9 
and 62*3, and the Kurumbas, whose index (average 88*8) 
ranges between llTl and 79' 1. And, to take extreme cases, 
alight-skinned, leptorrhine Kuruba, with long, narrow nose, 
5*3 X 3'3 cm. (index 62*3) cannot reasonabl}' be linked to- 
gether with a dark-skinned platy^rrhine Kurumba with 
short, broad nose, 36 x 4 cm. (index 1111). 

Relatively to stature, the span of the arms is greater in 
the semi-domesticated Kurumba than in the more civilised 
Kuruba. And, in consequence of the greater length of the 
upper extremity relative to stature, the hand reaches nearer 
to the knee in the former than in the latter. In the Kurum- 
bas the breadth of the hips across the iliac spines and the 
length of the foot are approximately^ the same, whereas, 
in the Kuruba, the breadth of the hips is considerably 
(1'2 cm.) greater than the foot length. In length and 
breadth of head, as might be expected, the Kuruba is in 
advance of the Kurumba, and the maxima recorded in the 
former are considerably in excess of those recorded in the 
latter. 



PL. XIV. 




KURUMBA GIRL. 



48 



TABLE YIII. 

COMPARISON OF MEASUREMENTS. 
KURUBAS AND KURUMBAS. 





Kurnbas. Kurumbas. 


Height 


163-9 


157-5 


Height, sitting 


84 


- 80-5 


Height, kneeling 


120-5 


115-4 


Height to gladiolus 


123-3 


116-4 


Span of arms 


171 


167-5 


Span of arms rel. to stature=100 


104-3 


106-3 


Chest 


83-8 


79-3 


Middle finger to patella ... 


12-3 


9-8 


Middle finger to patella rel. to stature=JOO 


7-5 


6-2 


Shonlders 


39-5 


37-5 


Cubit 


45-7 


45-2 


Hand, length 


18-3 


17-8 


Hand, breadth 


8 


7-9 


Middle finger 


11-5 


10-7 


Hips 


26-3 


24-5 


Foot, length ... 


25-1 


24-6 


Foot, breadth ... ... 


8-6 


8-2 


Cephalic length 


18-3 


17-9 


Cephalic breadth 


13-9 


13-7 


Cephalic index 


75-8 


77 


Bigoniac 


101 


9-8 


Bizygomatic 


12-9 


12'9 


Maxillo-zygomatic index 


77-7 


76 


Nasal height ... 


4-7 


4-2 


Nasal breadth 


3-4 


3-8 


Nasal index ... 


73-2 


88-8 


Vertex to tragus 


14-1 


13-3 


Vertex to chin 


^21-2 


20-4 



44 



SUMMARY OF EESULTS. 

When, as sometimes happens, I am, owing to fear or 
superstitious objection on the part of the members of a tribe 
to undergo the entire course of treatment at my hands, 
reduced to the necessity of selecting a few only out of the 
series of twenty-one measurements, which I am in the habit 
of recording, I select, as being most useful for the pur- 
poses of classification and correlation, the stature, length 
and breadth of head, and height and breadth of nose. With 
these data to work on, it is comparatively easy to fit any 
community approximately into its proper place in the South 
Indian anthropological puzzle. 

Some of the measurements, e.g., chest girth and breadth 
of shoulders {vide tables xiv and xv), though useful as a 
guide to physical development, possess no racial value. 
Others, though important for comparison between the in- 
habitants of Southern India and other parts of the world, 
have little or no value as factors in differentiating between 
the various castes, tribes, etc., of Southern India. The 
facial angle, for example, though of great importance in 
separating prognathous from so-called orthognathous races, 
is of little use as an aid to comparison and classification of 
the different communities of Southern India, in whom the 
average of the angle of Cuvier (with its vertex at the edge 
of the incisor teeth) ranges, in the people examined by me, 
between 67^ and IV, as shown in the subjoined statement. 



Badagas 


71 


Kotas 


70 


Kammalans 


70 


Brahmans (Madras City) 


69 


PaUis 


69 


Vellalas 


69 


Tiyyans 


69 


Muppas 


69 


Pal Kurumbas 


69 


Kongas 


69 


Todae 


68 


Pattar Brahmans 


68 


Malaialis 


68 


Tamil Pariahs 


68 


Kanarese Pariahs 


68 


Irulas 


68 


Sheik Muhammadans 


67 


Panjyans 


67 



45 



In tables ix to xiii I have brought together, for the 
purpose of comparison, statistical evidence relating to the 
average stature, head, and nose measurements of the differ- 
ent classes which 1 have so far investigated. The most 
troublesome heads to measure were those of my hairy Toda 
friends, whose dense locks constituted an effective obstacle 
to easy shifting of the callipers, while the desired maxi- 
mum was being groped for in the dark ; the easiest were 
those of men with heads clean shaved in observance of some 
religious or domestic rite. 

An examination of the section of the Madras Census 
Report, 1891, devoted to ' caste, tribe, and race/ will 
show how hopeless, to a worker with only one coUaborateur, 
must be the prospect of making even a semblance of an 
approach to a complete anthropological survey of the 
multifarious tribes and castes inhabiting the vast tract of 
country comprising Southern India, which is included in 
my beat. All I can hope to do, amid other duties of a 
manifold nature, is to examine the more important com- 
munities when at head-quarters in Madras, and to make 
periodical roving expeditions with a view to carrying on the 
research in selected tribe-hunting grounds. In this way the 
material summarised in tables ix to xv has been brought 
together during the last two years ; and including, as it 
does, examples of dwellers in the plains, on the hill tops, in 
the jungles at the bases of the hills, and on the Mysore 
plateau, it may, I think, be taken as fairly representative, 
and used for the purpose of generalisation. The nature 
and extent of the material collected up to the present time, 
and utilised in the following summaries of results, is shown 
by the subjoined tabular statement : — 



Class. 


Habitat. 


Number 
measured. 


Male. 


Female. 


Todas 
Kotas 
1 Badagas 


Plateau of the Nllgiri 

hillR. 

Plateau of the Nilgiri 

hills. 
Plateau of the Nilgiri 

hills. 


25 
25 
40 


25 
20 



46 







Number 






measured. 


Clast? 


Habitat 






\_/idiHb> 


A.JLlMKrM.U€»lv» 


Male. 


I 
Female.', 


Irulas 


Lower slopes of the Nll- 
giri hills. 


25 


1 


Kurumbas . . 


Lower slopes of the Nil- 
giri hills. 


15 




Sholigas 


Base of Mysore hills 


3 




Malaialis 


Shevaroy hills . . 


36 




Paniyans . . 


Wynad, Malabar 


25 


12 


Muppas 


Do. 


24 




Tiyyans 


Calicut, South Malabar. 


25 


25 


Cherumans 


Do. do. 


25 


25 


Pattar Braliinans , . 


Do. do. 


25 




Kongas 


Coimbatore District 


20 




Tamil Bralimans 


Madras City 


40 




(poorer classes). 








Tamil Pariahs 


Do 


40 




Kammalans 


Do 


40 




PaUis 


Do 


40 




Vellalas . . 


Do 


40 




Mnhammadans 


Do 


75 




Kanarese Pariahs . . 


Mysore Province 


33 




Kurubas . . 


Do. 


25 




Koramas 


Do. 


25 




Lambadis (nomad). 


Do. 

Total . . 


40 


40 


711 


147 



1. STATUEE. 

The tallest men whom I have come across are a Toda 
(185 cm.) and Badaga (183*2 cm.) ; the shortest a Muppa 
(144*6 cm.), Cheruman (145*8 cm.), Kammalan (146*4 cm.) 
and Tamil Pariah (149*4 cm.). 

The following table shows the average heights of the 
classes investiga,ted : — 

Very tall 170 cm. and upwards. 



Above middle height 170 to 165 cm. 
Todas 169*6 



47 

Below middle height 165 to 160 cm. 



Sheik Muhammad ans . . 


164-5 


Lambadis 




164-3 


Pattar Brahmaiis 




164-3 


Badagas 
Kurubas 


•• 


164-1 
163-9 


Malaialis 




163-9 


Tijyans . . 
Kotas . . 


•• 


163 7 
162-9 


Brahmans (Madras 
Pallis . . 


city) 


162-5 
162-5 


Vellalas 




162-4 


Tamil Pariahs . . 


, , 


161-9 


Kanarese Pariahs 


, , 


161-8 



Low stature below 160 cm. 

Irulas 159-8 

Kammalans . . . . 1597 

Koramas . . . . 1593 

Kongas . . . . . . 159 

Muppas 157-7 

Cherumans . . . . 157*5 

Urali Kurumbas . . 157*5 

Pal Kurumbas . . . . 157-5 

Paniyans . , . . 157-4 

In Keane^s 'Ethnology/ Hindus and Dravidians are 
(after Topinard) aggregated together, in an anthropologi- 
cal conglomerate, as possessing an average height of 164*5 
cm., which I take to be rather exaggerated. In the fore- 
going table a very large majority of Hindu-Dra vidians are 
undoubtedly included, but the aberrant Tod as alone reach 
this average. The Todas, according to my estimate^ pos- 
sess approximately the same stature as the Irish (169*7 
cm.), and just miss the dignity of being included with the 
English among the very tall races of the world. The hairy 
Ainu of Japan, it may be noted, is placed by Keane, in 
company with the Toda, in a siding on the family tree of 
Homo Caucasicus. The average height of the stalwart, 
black-haired Toda (5 feet 7^ inches) is, according to Mr. 
Savage Landor^s measurement^ of five typical examples, 
conspicuously in excess of that of the short, sometimes 
red-haired Aiuu (5 feet 2| inches). 

Between the Todas and the next tallest class, the Sheik 
Muhammadans, there is a well-defined gap of 5'1 cm. But 

® Alone with the hairy Ainu, 



48 



from Sheiks to Pariahs there is a gradual decrease in height, 
with a break of 2 cm. between the lowest representatives 
of middle stature and the tallest of low stature. Among 
the classes of middle height, the uniformity of the height of 
Brahmans, Pallis, and Vellalas, and of Tamil and Kanarese 
Pariahs is noteworthy. So also is the presence of the Kam- 
malans among the classes of low stature, amid the humble 
environment of Irulas, Koramas, and Kongas. 

• The length of the upper extremities, in the classes 
under consideration, relative to stature, as estimated by the 
determination of the distance from the tip of the middle 
finger to the top of the knee-cap (patella), when the subject 
is at attention with the extensor muscles of the thigh re- 
laxed, 



shown by the following table : — 






Average. 


Average 

relative to 

gtature=100 


Koramas 


.. 13-3 


8-3 


Kurubas 


.. 12-8 


7-6 


Badagas 
Lambadis 


.. 12-2 
.. 11-7 


7-4 
71 


Pattar Brahman s 


.. 11-3 


6-9 


Irulas 


. . 10-7 


6-7 


Kotas 


. . 10-7 


Q'6 


Malaialis 


.. 10-8 


6-6 


Sheik Muhammadans 


.. 10-7 


6-5 


Tiyyans 
Yellalas 


.. 10-6 
.. 10-4 


6-5 
6-4 


Kongas 

Tamil Brahmans 


9-9 
.. 10-1 


6-2 
6-2 


Kanarese Pariahs 


9-8 


61 


Tamil Pariahs 


9-4 


5-8 


Pallis 


9-5 


5-8 


Kammalans . . 


8-4 


5-3 


Todas 


•9 


5-3 


Muppas 
Cherumans 


8-2 
7-8 


5-3 
4-6 


Faniyans 


.. 7-3 


4-4 



The more the distance diminishes, the greater is the 
length of the upper extremities. The arm then is shortest 
in the Kanarese Koramas, Kurubas, and Badagas, and 
longest in the short, broad-nosed Paniyans, who approach 
the Negro average (4-37). 

As examples of inordinately long upper extremities (not 
included in the averages), which brought to mind the 



49 

Hindu ideal of the long-armed Rdma, ^^ whose hands reach 
to the knees/ ^ the two following cases are worthy^ of being 
placed on record. The one was a venerable, white-haired 
Knrnba ; the other a Tamil Pariah, who is referred to later 
on in connection with his nose. 



Height 

Span of arms 

Difference between span and height. 

Cubit 

Middle finger to patella 
Middle finger to patella relative to 
statures 100. 



2. HEAD MEASUEEMENTS. 

For the benefit of w.j amateur readers, to whom the 
meaning of the term ' cephalic index ' maj not be clear, it 
ma^ be stated that this index, which expresses the ratio of 
the length to the breadth of the head, is estimated by multi- 
plying the maximum breadth by 100, and dividing the pro- 
duct by the maximum length. 



C^urnba. 


Pariah. 


CM. 


CM. 


177-8 


16a-8 


199-2 


183-8 


21 


23 


53 




5-7 


6-4 


3-2 


4 



rn -j ( cephalic length 20 cm. 

^ ^ ( cephalic breadth 14 cm. 

14X100 

= 70 = cephalic index. 



20 



-p -1 i cephalic length 18*2 cm. 

( cephalic breadth 1 5 cm. 

15X100 

= 82-4= cephalic index. 



18-2 

The terms used in the headings of the columns in table 
ix, in which the nomenclature of Broca is followed, have 
the following significance :— 

Dolichocephalic Index 75 and under. 
Sub-dolichocephalic ,, 75-01 to 77*77. 
Mesaticephalic ,, 77-78 to 80. 

Sub-brachycephalic „ 8001 to 83'33. 
Brachycephalic ,, 83*34 and upwards. 



m 

Turning now to table ix. Conspicuous by its almost 
complete absence is the brachycephalic head, which, were I 
dealing with the Burmese instead of the inhabitants of 
Southern India, would be very largely represented, with a 
corresponding decrease in the numbers of dolicho-and sub- 
dolichocephalic heads. The columns in table ix would, in 
fact, have been inverted. The solitary heads, which prevent 
the brachycephalic column from being a perfect and absolute 
blank, were the property of a Kanarese Koraman, and a 
Tamil Brahman guru (religious instructor) who shares with 
a Toda the honour of possessing the fnaximum head-breadtli 
(15'2 cm.) recorded in my notes. But the length of the 
Todays head was 19*6 cm. against the Brahman's 181 cm. 
The only other brachycephalic heads, which I have met with 
during the examination of nine hundred subjects, belonged 
to two broad-headed Lambadi lassies, whose cephalic indices 
were 83*9 and 85 "5 respectively. 

It is worthy of notice that the tribes, which stand 
first and second in the list, so far as head length is concerned, 
are the Todas and Kotas — the two oldest existing tribes 
of the Nilgiri plateau— in whom alone the average head 
length exceeds 19 cm. The maximum head lengths re- 
corded, in the classes under review, reached, or slightly 
exceeded 20 cm. only in the Todas, Kotas, and Badagas of 
the Nilgiri plateau, and in the Tiyyans and Pattar Brahman s 
of Malabar. In the other classes investigated, the maxi- 
mum head-length ranged between 19*9 cm. in the Brah- 
mans of Madras city (belonging to the poorer classes) and 
19*1 in the Irulas and Kongas, whose mental development 
is of a very low order. The Irulas, it may be mentioned, 
en passant, are an uncultivated jungle tribe^ who have only 
in recent years been brought by the European planting com- 
munity under the influence of civilisation ; and the Kongas 
are a degraded sub-division of the Vellalas, who occupy 
a low position in the Vellala community. '^No other 
Vellala," it is said, ^ '' would take his meals with them 
because they employ TJppiliyans and other low caste people 
as cooks for their marriages, &c." 

The average head-length ranges between 19'4 cm. in 
the Todas and 17*8 cm. in the Kongas and Koramas. The 
latter are inhabitants of the Mysore plateau, very dark- 
skinned and short of stature, " with crime and vice writ 



^ Madras CensDs Eeport, 1891, 



51 

large on their physiagnomj, ^' who combine professional 
burgling, and animal and bird-snaring with ingenious con- 
trivances, with the more orthodox occupation of basket 
making. Onl^ under marked protest, and with the assist- 
ance of the police, did the Koramas permit me to use them 
for the purposes of anthropometry, and my recollection of 
my sojourn among them is far from a happy one. 

The coincidence of the head length in four out of the 
five Hindu classes examined in Madras City — Brahmans, 
Vellalas, Pallis, and Pariahs — appears to me suggestive. In 
the fifth class, the Kammalans, the head-length was slightly 
less. 

As in length, so in breadth of head, the To das and 
Kotas of the Nilgiris stand out conspicuously in the first 
rank, but. in this case, bracketed equal with the Brahmans 
of Madras city (14' 2 cm.), who are close followed by 
the Pattar Brahmans of Malabar, descended from Tamil 
Brahmans who migrated to Malabar from the east coast, 
and have, I imagine, become modified as regards physical 
characters by alliances contracted in the home of their 
adoption {vide table xvi). In the remaining classes, the 
average head-breadth ranges between 13'8 cm. and 13*5 cm. 
and calls for no special remark, except that breadth of head 
exceeding 15 cm. occurred only among the Todas (16*2), 
Kotas (15*1), Brahmans of Madras City (15'2), and Pattar 
Brahmans (15'1). 

Arranging the classes under review in sequence, accord- 
ing to the cephalic index, the results are as follows : — 

Dohchocephalic . 

Badagas .. .. ,, .. 71-7 

Mnppas . . . . . , . . 72"3 

Tiyyans , .. 72*7 

Paliis 73 

Todas 73-1 

Tamil Pariahs 73*6 

Cherumans . . . . . . 73*9 

PaniyauB . . . , a . , , 74 

Kotas 74-1 

Vellalas 74-1 

Malaialis . . . . , . . , 74*4 

Pattar Brahmans . . • • 74*5 

KammalaaB 75 



Sub-dolichocephalic. 



Lambadis 


.. 75-4 


Kurubas 


.. 75-8 


Sheik Muhammadans 


.. 76-2 


Brahmans (Madras city) . 


.. 76-5 


Kanarese Pariahs 


.. 76-8 


Kongas 


.. 77 


Koramas . . 


.. 77-5 



Only, as shown in table ix, in the Todas, Badagas, and 
Mnppas, was the head confined to the dolichocephalic and 
sub-dolichocephalic types ; the remaining classes possessing 
a greater or less proportion of mesaticephalic (intermediate) 
and sub-brachy cephalic heads. In the majority of the 
classes examined, the head was dolichocephalic in more 
than half the cases; and it is clear from the foregoing 
statistics that the dolichocephalic head is the prevailing 
type, so far as Southern India is concerned. The classes, 
in which the head was dolichocephalic in less than half the 
cases, were the Brahmans and Sheik Muhammadans of 
Madras City, Irulas, Kongas, Kurubas, Kanarese Pariahs, 
and Koramas. A glance at table ix shows at once the high 
proportion of sub-dolichocephalic heads in the Brahmans 
and Kurubas, and mesaticephalic heads in the Koramas. I 
have already (Bulletin No. 4) dealt with the great breadth 
of the Brahman head in comparison with that of the other 
classes examined in Madras. The Lambadis, Kurubas and 
Sheik Muhammadans come intermediate between the Brah- 
mans and a group composed of Kanarese Pariahs, Irulas, 
Koramas, and Kongas, all people of low origin, whose high 
cephalic index is explained, not as in the case of the Brah- 
mans, by the great breadth of the head in proportion to its 
length, but, as shown in the following summary, by the 
shortness of its length in relation to its breadth : — 

Length. Breadth. 



Brahmans 


cm. 
.. 18-6 


cm. 
14-2 


Lambadis . . 


.. 18-4 


13'9 


Kurubas 


.. 18-3 


13-9 


Sheik Muhammadans 


.. 18-2 


13-8 


Kanarese Pariahs . . 


.. 18 


13-8 


Irulas 


.. 18 


13-7 


Koramas 


.. 17-8 


13-9 


Kongas 


.. 17-8 


13-7 



PL. XV. 




TAMIL PARIAH. 



53 



3. THE NOSE. 

Readers of Marrjat's novels will doubtless remember 
that Japhet, in search of his father, borrowed from Mr. 
Cophagus a book containing a dissertation upon the human 
frame, sympathies, antipathies, and those features and 
peculiarities most likely to descend from one generation to 
another, wherein it was asserted that the nose was the facial 
feature most likely to be transmitted. The nose I regard 
as an all-important element, so far as the people in whom 
I am interested are concerned, as a basis of classification_, 
and as an aid to the elucidation of the ancestry of caste 
and tribe. Not, however, the shape of the nose, but the rela- 
tion of its height to its breadth (nasal index), is that to 
which a prominent place must be assigned in a study of the 
comparative anthropography of the people of Southern 
India. '^Le plus important des caracteres cepLalometri- 
ques,^' says Topinard,^^ ^^ est Tindice nasal. O'est le seul 
caractere se mesurant qui partage tons les types de Phu- 
manite en trois groupes fondamentaux r^pondant a la 
division classique de Cuvier en races blanches {leptorrhi- 
niennes, nez long, et etroit), races jaunes (mesorrhiniennes, 
nez large et bas) . Get indice varie, dans les moyennes, de 63 
dans une serie de 100 Franc ais dolichocephales et blondes 
mesures par le docteur Collignon a 109 dans une serie de 
Tasmaniens mesures pour nous sur leurs moulages ; et dans 
les cas particuliers, de 50 et moins chez des Europeens 
a 153 chez un Austraiien.'^ 

A photograph (pi. xv), which I regard with some affec- 
tion, has been challenged on the ground that it must have 
been deformed. It may, therefore, be stated that noses 
disfigured by small-pox and other diseases, or pugilistic 
encounters, are invariably rejected. 

Once more, for the amateur, it may be explained that 
the nasal index expresses the relation of the height of the 
nose, measured from the under surface (not the tip), to the 
breadth measured across the widest part of the nostrils 
when at rest. This index is, like the cephalic index, esti- 
mated by multiplying the breadth by 100, and dividing the 
product by the height. 



^^ L' Homme dans la Nature, 



u 



tlxamples. — 

( nasal breadth 34 cm. 

3-4x100 ^, o 1 . , 

= 61-8 = nasal index. 

5.' 5 

( nasal breadth 4 cm. 

— = 100 = nasal index. 

4 

~p . ( nasal height 3-5 cm. 
raniyan j ^^^^^ breadth 3-8 cm. 

108 6 = nasal index. 



cm. 
3-8x100 



3-5 

These examples, taken, from my case-book, show 
(1) that the greater the height in proportion to the breadth, 
the lower is the index; (2) that, when the height is 
exactly equal to the breadth, the index is 100 ; (3) that, 
when the breadth is greater than the height, the index 
exceeds 100. 

Turning now to tables xi-xiii, it will be seen that the 
average nasal index of the people investigated ranges from 
69*1 in the tall, light- skinned, and long narrow-nosed 
Lambadis (who speak an Aryan language), to 95*1 in the 
short, dark-skinned, and short, broad-nosed Paniyans ; and 
that the indices recorded range between a minimum of 59*2 
in a Lambadi and a maximum of 108 '6 in a Paniyan. 
The maximum index, however, which I have met with, was 
in the case of a Paniyan woman, who possessed a nose 3*1 
cm. in height and S'7 cm. in breadth, and a nasal index of 
119-4. 

In table xii the noses are arranged according to their 
height. But the actual sequence of nasal indices is recorded 
in table xi, which shows, in each case, the maxima and 
minima observed, the average, and the range. In the 
same table, the noses are further classified according as the 
average index is from 60-70, 70-80, 80-90, or 90-100 j 
and the main interest, to my mind, lies in the connection 
which exists between the noses in the earlier and later 
series. Assistance in tracing this connection will, I think, 
be found in table xiii, in which statistics relating to twenty 
to twenty-five members of the various classes examined are 
given, snowing the frequency of noses with indices of 50-60 
60-70, 70-80, 80-90, 90-100, and 100-110. 



55 

Onlj in one case — tlie Lambadis — do noses occuir with an 
index below 60. The most popular columns, so far as num- 
ber of entries is concerned, are those containing noses 
ranging between 70 and 80 and between 80 and 00, which 
contain respectiyely 236 and 146 out of 515 noses examined. 
Occupying a very prominent position in the column of noses 
between 80 and 90 are the Tamil Pariahs, Irulas, and Muppas, 
all of whom get into double figures. In the column contain- 
ing noses with indices from 90 to 100, the Paniyans and 
Irulas hold a high place, and the same two classes monopolise, 
in the proportion of 10 : 1, the final column, which contains 
those wondrous noses, of which the breadth exceeds the 
height. In this column the Kurumbas and Sholigas would 
figure largely, but the material at my disposal is too scanty 
for record in the table. 

On a cofi'ee estate in the Ouchterlony valley, I was 
introduced to a Sholiga dwarf, the son and brother of dwarfs 
with hereditary Polydactyly, who was very angry at my 
measuring operations, and kept on muttering that such a 
thing would not have been permitted when Mr. Ouchterlony 
was alive. The big but normal nose of this little man, 
measuring 4x4"lcm., with nasal index of 102*5, presented 
an irresistably comical appearance, but he failed to appre- 
ciate my lively interest in it. 

In the subjoined tabular statement the various castes 
and tribes are classified according to the range of their 
nasal indices, i.e., the difference between the maximum 
and minimum recorded in each case. 

10—20. 

Badagas . . . . . . 15-7 

Todas 17-9 

Kotae 18-9 

20—30. 

Tiyyane 21*8 

Muppas . . . , 21-8 

Knrubas . . . . . . 23*6 

Lambadis . . . . . . 24*5 

Paniyans . . . . . . 249 

Sheik Muhammadane . . 25 1 

Kanarese Pariahs . . . . 26 6 

Kammalans . . . . . . 27*6 

Iridae .. .. ., ,, 277 

Koramas . . . . . . 28*2 

Kongas c 28*7 

Cherumans , , . . . , 29*3 



56 



30—40. 




Pattar Braliinans 


. . 301 


Vellalas 


o 30-7 


MalaialiB 


. 34-2 


Pallis 


. . 34-3 


Brahmans (Madras City) 


. 35-1 


Tamil Pariahs 


. 39 



It is noteworthy that the tribes, whose nasal indices 
have the least variation, are the three which inhabit the 
plateau of the Nilgiri hills, where they lived an isolated 
existence until the settlement of the English on these hills 
in recent times ; and that the owners of the greatest varia- 
tion (exceeding 30) constitute a group of Tamil classes 
made up of Brahmans, Vellalas, Pallis, and Pariahs of 
Madras city> the Malaialis of the Shevaroy hills, (descended, 
it is said, from Vellalas of Conjeveram), and the Pattar 
Brahmans descended from east-coast Tamil Brahmans. 

Very suggestive are the following measurements of 
a very dark-skinned Tamil Pariah cooly, whom I met 
by chance when changing camp in the course of a recent 
wandering, and detained, much against his will, until the 
measuring instruments came up. 



Height .. 


.. 160-8 cm. 


Nasal height . . 


.. 4 „ 


Nasal breadth . . 


4-2 „ 


Nasal index 


.. 105 „ 



Looking at the portrait of this man (pi. xv), there is an 
irresistable impulse to connect him, in the ties of ethnical 
relationship, with the jungle tribes ; and I regard this man, 
and other Pariahs of a kindred nature, whom I have come 
across, as important witnesses in support of my belief that 
the constantly recurring high nasal index among existing 
Aryo-Dravidians and Dravidians must be traced to the in- 
fluence of a platyrrhine (broad-nosed) ancestor. 

The Sheik, Pathan, and Saiyad Muhammadans of 
Madras claim to be descendants of immigrants from the 
north, and to be distinct from the converted Dravidians, 
the Mdppilas and Labbais. Their claim is no doubt justi- 
fied; but well-marked signs of admixture of Dravidian 
blood are conspicuous in some members of their com- 
munities, whose dark skin and high nasal index betray 
their non- Aryan ancestry. 



PLATE XV'/ 




BraJbmaxi 




PariaE 




Mm 



Paniyan 
Average 

Diagrama of Noses 



Max 



5? 

In plate xvi are figured a series of triangles representing 
(natural size) the maxima, minima, and average nasal indices 
of Brahmans of Madras city (belonging to the poorer classes) 
Tamil Pariahs, and Paniyans. There is obviously far less 
connection between the Brahman minimum and the Paniyan 
maximum than between the Brahman and Pariah maxima 
and the Paniyan average ; and the frequent occurrence of 
high nasal indices, resulting from short, broad noses, not 
only in Brahmans and Pariahs, but also in Cherumans, 
Muppas, KongaSj and others, has to be accounted for. 

Sir. A. Lyall somewhere refers to the gradual Brahmani- 
sing of the aboriginal Non- Aryan, or casteless tribes. 
" They pass,^' he says, " into Brahmanists by a natural 
upward transition, which leads them to adopt the religion 
of the castes immediately above them in the social scale of 
the composite population, among which they settle down ; 
and we may reasonably guess that this process has been 
working for centuries. " In the Madras Census report, 
1891, the Census Commissioner, Mr. H. A. Stuart, states 
that '* it has often been asserted, and is now the general 
belief, that the Brahmans of the south are not pure Aryans, 
but are a mixed Aryan and Dra vidian race. In the earliest 
times the caste division was much less rigid than now, 
and a person of another caste could become a Brahman by 
attaining the Brahmanical standard of knowledge, and 
assuming Brahmanical functions. And when we see the 
Nambudiri Brahmans, even at the present day, contracting 
alliances, informal though they be, with the women of the 
country, it is not difficult to believe that, on their first 
arrival, such unions were even more common, and that the 
children born of them would be recognised as Brahmans, 
though perhaps regarded as an inferior class. However, 
those Brahmans, in whose veins mixed blood is supposed 
to run, are even to this day regarded as lower in the social 
scale, and are not allowed to mix freely with the pure 
Brahman community. ^' 

Between a Brahman of high culture, with fair com- 
plexion, and long, narrow nose on the one hand, and a 
less highly-civiHsed Brahman with dark skin and short, 
broad nose on the other, there is a vast difference, which 
can only be reasonably explained on the assumption of 
admixture of races. Aiid it is no insult to the higher mem- 
bers of the Brahman community to trace, in their more 
lowly brethren, the result of crossing with a dark-skinned, 



iH 



lb road-nosed race of sliort stature. Whether the jungle 
tribes — Irulas, Kurumbas, Sholigas, and others — are the 
existing microscopic remnant of a pre-Dravidian people, or 
of Dravidians driven by a conquering race to the seclusion 
of the jungles, it is to the lasting influence of some such 
broad-nosed ancestor that the high nasal index and short 
stature of manj of the inhabitants of Southern India must, 
it seems to me^ be attributed. Viewed in the light of this 
remark, the connection between the following mixed collec- 
tion of individuals, all of very dark colour, short of stature, 
and \viith nasal index exceeding 90, calls for no explana- 
tion : — 





Stature. 


Nasal 


Nasal 


Nasal 




height. 


breadth. 


index. 




CM. 


CM. 


CM. 




Kammalan 


154-4 


4-4 


4 


90-9 


Korama 


159-8 


4-6 


4-2 


91-3 


Saiyad Muhammadan, . 


160 


4-4 


4 


90-9 


Vellala 


154-8 


4-7 


4-3 


91-6 


Muppa . . 


151-2 


3-7 


3-4 


91-9 


Malaiali 


158-8 


4 


3-7 


92-5 


Konga . . 


157 


41 


3-8 


92-7 


Pattar Brahman 


157-6 


4-2 


3-9 


92-9 


KurTiTYiba 


159-6 


4-4 


4-1 


93-2 


Smarta Brahman 


159 


4-1 


3-9 


95-1 


Palli . . 


157-8 


4'1 


3-9 


951 


Irula . . 


155-4 


41 


3-9 


95-1 


Paniyan 


157-8 


4-1 


3-9 


951 


Irula . . 


158-6 


4-3 


4-3 


100 


Tamil Pariah . . 


160 


4 


4-2 


105 


Paniyan 


158-8 


3-8 


4 


105-3 



Though the present chapter is entitled ' Summary of 
Results/ it aims at no finality, but must be regarded in the 
light of a preliminary summary based on the evidence col- 
lected up to date. Absence from India will create abroach 
of continuity in my work in connection with the anthro- 
pological survey of Southern India, which I hope to resume^ 
with renewed vigour, in 1898. 

^^ The more remote and unknown the race or tribe/' it 
has been said, ^'the more valuable is the evidence afforded 
hy the study of its institutions^ from the probability of 



m 

their being less mixed with those of European origin/' 
Tribes which, only a few years ago, were living in a wild 
state, clad in a cool and simple garb of forest leaves, and 
buried away in the depths of the jungle, have now come 
under the domesticating^ and sometimes detrimental, influ- 
ence of contact with Europeans, with a resulting modifi- 
cation of their conditions of life, morality, and even lan- 
guage. The Paniyans of the Wynad, and the Irulas who 
inhabit the slopes of the Nilgiris, now work regularly 
for daily wage on planters^ estates ; and I was lately 
shocked by seeing a Toda boy studying for the third stand- 
ard in Tamil, instead of tending the buffaloes of his mand. 
The Todas, whose natural drink is milk, now delight in 
bottled beer, and mixture of port wine and gin, which they 
purchase in the Ootacamund bazdr. On one occasion, I 
am told, a planter met two stalwart Todas returning from 
a funeral ceremony, and carrying across their shoulders a 
bundle, which, on examination, resolved itself into a Toda 
woman in a very advanced stage of intoxication. 

"The rapid extermination of savages at the present 
time, and the rapidity with which they are being reduced 
to the standard of European manners, renders it of urgent 
importance to correct these sources of error as soon as 
possible.^' Ample proof can be adduced in support of the 
fact that European influence, import trade with other coun- 
tries, and the struggle for existence, are bringing about a 
rapid change (said from an ethnographic standpoint) among 
the native inhabitants of Southern India, both civilised and 
uncivilised. The employment of tiles and kerosine tins in 
lieu of primitive thatch ; the import of cotton piece goods, 
which represents roughly 40 per cent, of the total import 
trade, and of umbrellas to the value of over 40,00,000 rupees 
annually; cooly trade and migration by sea to Assam, Burma 
and Ceylon ; the decline of the national turban in favour 
of the less becoming porkpie cap or knitted night cap of 
gaudy hue ; the replacement of peasant jewelry of indi- 
genous manufacture by the importation of beads and imita-' 
tion jewelry made in Europe, and accurately copied, in many 
instances, from specimens sent to exhibitions, and purchased 
by the agents of the manufacturers ; the abandonment of 
the use of indigenous vegetable dyes in favour of the 
cheaper and more rapidly operating anilin and alizarin 
dyes ; the use of lucifer matches by ' aboriginal ' tribes, 
who formerly made fire by friction ; the supply of new 



66 

forms of food, and of beer and spirits, in the bazaars ; the 
influence of the Government in suppressing thuggi, sutti, 
the human (meriah) sacrifices of the Khonds, and Toda 
infanticide ; the administration of justice ; the spread of 
education ; religious teaching : — these and many other 
factors are the causes, or signs of, a radical change in the 
ethnographic conditions of the country. 

A Toda lassie curling her ringlets with the assistance 
of a cheap looking-class ; a Toda man smeared with Hindu 
sect marks_, doing puja, and praying for male offspring at 
a Hindu shrine ; a Bengali babu with close-cropped hair 
and bare head, clad in patent leather boots, white socks, 
dhuti, and conspicuous unstarched shirt of English device ; 
a Hindu or Parsi cricket eleven engaged against a Euro- 
pean team; the increasing struggle for small-paid appoint- 
ments under Grovernment: — these are a few examples of 
changes resulting from the refinement of modern civiliza- 
tion. 

It has recently been said that " there will be plenty of 
money and people available for anthropological research, 
when there are no more aborigines "; and it behoves our 
museums to waste no time in completing their anthropo- 
logical collections. 



61 
TABLE IX. 

CLASSIFICATION OF HEADS. 





.2 

ft 

o 
'o 

p 


.2 

•a 

O 
O 


6 

1 

ft 

o 


ft 

m 


.2 


Todas 22 


3 




... 






Badagas ... •■ 


21 


4 


... 








Pallis 


20 


2- 


3 


1 






■ ■■ 

Tiyyans 


20 


2 


2 


•• 


- 


Muppas 


19 


5 




Yellalas 

1 


19 


5 


1 








Tamil Pariahs 


18 


6 


1 








Kotas ... 


17 


6 


2 






Cherumans 


17 


5 


2 


1 






Malaialis 


17 


3 


4 


1 






Paniyans ... ... 


15 


8 


1 


1 




-| 


Kammalans 


14 ^ 


6 


3 


2 




■ 
Pattar Brahmans 


14 


6 


3 


2 




— 


Lambadis 13 


7 


2 


^ 




Irulas 1 11 


8 


5 


1 






Sheik Muhammadans 10 


7 


6 


2 


... 




Kanarese Pariahs ... ... ... 8 


' 


5 


5 




- 


Tamil Brahmins 7 


12 


3 


2 


1 


Knrubas ... 


7 


13 


4 


2 






Kongas 


6 


8 


9 


2 






Korama.s ... ..^ 

) 


6 


3 


13 


1 


2 



62 



TABLE X. 

AVERAGES. 
CEPHALIC LENGTH, BREADTH, AND INDEX. 





Length. 


Breadth. 


Index- 


cm. 


cm. 


— 


Todas 


19-4 


14-2 


73-3 


Kotas 


19-2 


14-2 


74-1 


Badagas 


18-9 


13-6 


71-7 


Tiyyana 


18-9 


13-7 


72-7 


P attar Br ahmans ... 


18-8 


14 


74-5 


Tamil Brahmans 


18-6 


14-2 


76-5 


Tamil Pariahs 


18-6 


13-7 


73-6 


Vellalas 


18-6 


13-8 


741 


Pallis 


18-6 


13-6 


73 


Muppas 


18-5 


13-4 
13-9 


72-3 
75-4 


Lambadis ... 


18-4 


Kammalans 


18-4 


13-7 


75 


Paniyans 


18-4 


13-6 


74 


' Kurubas 


18-3 


13-9 


75-8 


Malaialis 


18-3 


13-7 


74-4 


Cherumans 


18-3 


13-5 


73-9 
76-2 


Sheik Muhammadan8 ... 


18-2 


13-8 


Kanarese Pariahs 


18 


13-8 


76-8 


Irulas , 


18 


13-7 


75-8 


Kongas ... 


17-8 


13-7 


77 
77-5 


Koramas 


17-8 


139 



63 



TABLE XI. 

NASAL INDEX. 





Max. 


Min. 


Average. 


Eange. 


60-70. 
Lambadis 83-7 


59-2 


69-1 


24-5 


Sheik Mnhammadaris 

70- 
Yellalas 


85-1 
-80. 
91-5 


60 
60-8 


70 
73-1 


25-1 
30-7 


Knrubas 


85-9 


62-3 


73-2 


23-6 


Todas 


89-1 


61-2 


74-9 


17-9 
21-8 
18-9 


Tiyyans ... 


83-3 


61-5 


75 


Kotas 

1 


92-9 


64 


75-5 


Badagas 


88-4 


62-7 


75-6 


15-7 


Koramas ... 


90-9 


62-7 


75-7 
75-9 


28-2 
26-6 


Kanarese Pariahs ... 


88-1 


61-5 


1 Pattar Brahmans 


95-3 


64-7 


76-5 


301 


Brahmans (Madras city) 


95-1 


60 


76-7 


35-1 


Kammalan.? 


90-9 


63-3 


773 


27-6 


Malaialis 


100 


63-8 


77-8 


34-2 


Pallis 


95-1 


60-8 


77-9 


34-3 
29-3 


Cheriiinans ... 


88-9 69-6 


78-1 


Kongas ... ... 

80 
, Tamil Pariahs 


92-7 
-90. 
10-5 


64 
6Q 


79-9 
80 


28-7 
39 


1 Muppae 

j Irulas ... , 


92-3 

100- r 

-100. 


70-5 


81-5 


21-8 


72-3 


84-9 


27-7 


1 Pal Kurumbas 

90 
Urali Kurumbas 


1 


87 

93-4 
94-4 


Sholigas ' 






Paniyans 


108-6 


83-7 95-1 


24-9 

1 



64 
TABLE XII. 

AVERAGES OF NASAL HEIGHT, BREADTH, 
AND INDEX. 



Height. 



Breadth. Index. 



Lambadis 



Sheik Muhammadans 
Vellalas 



Kurubas 
Tiyyans 



Todas 



Pattar, Brahman s 



Brahman? (Madras city) 



Kanarese, Pariahs 



Badag"as 



Koramas 



Malaialis 



4-9 
4-9 
4-7 



4-7 
4-7 
4-7 



4-7 



4-7 
4-7 
4-6 



4-6 



3-4 



3-4 



3-4 



3-4 
3-5 

3-6 
3-6 
3-6 
3-6 



3-4 



3-4 



69M 



70 



73-1 



73-2 

75 

74-9 

76-5 

76-7 

75-9 

75-6 



Kammalans 



Pallis 



Kotas 



Kongas 



Tamil Pariahs 



Cheramans 



Irulas 



Pal Knrumbas 



Sholigas 
Muppas 



Urali Kurumbas 



Paniyans 



4-6 
4-6 
4-6 
4-5 
4-5 
4-5 
4-4 
4-4 
4-3 
4-2 
4-1 
4-1 
4 



3-5 



3-6 
3-G 



3-5 
3-5 
3-6 
3-4 
37 
3-7 



3-9 
3-3 
3-8 
3-8 



75-7 



77-8 



77-3 
77-9 

77-2 
79-9 
80 
78-1 



84-9 

87 

94-4 

81-5 

93-4 

95-1 



TABLE XIII. 



COMPARISON OF NASAL INDICES OF 20-25 MEMBERS 
OF YARIOUS CLASSES. 



1 
1 50-60 

i 1 


60-70 


70-80 


80-90 90-lOG 


100- 
110 


Lambadis ... 


2 


18 


6 


1 

4 




... 


Sheik Mukammadaus 




13 


11 


1 


... 





; Vellalas 


... 


9 


13 


3 




Kurnbas 




, 8 


14 


3 


... 




Koramas 




6 


12 


4 


1 




Kanarese Parialis 




6 


10 


9 






Tiyyans 
j Todas 




5 


13 


7 




... 





4 


13 . 


8 




... 


i Kotas 


4 


11 


8 


1 

1 


... 


Brahmans (Madras city) ... i ... 


4 


12 


8 





Pattar Brahmaus ... ... j ... 


4 


15 


4 


2 


i Badagas I ... 

1 i ■ 


3 


14 


8 






Malaialis i ... 


3 


12 


9 


1 




1 
Kammalans ... ... ... i ... 


2 
2 


16 


6 


1 


... 


Kongas 




7 


8 


3 





Pallis 




1 


14 


7 


3 


Tamil Pariahs 




1 


1 

1 


14 
8 


1 


1 
10 


Cherumans j 




] 


16 


Muppas ... ... ... i 


— 




11 


11 


2 
6 


Irulas ... ... ... ... ; 




7 


11 


Paniyans ' ... 

1 


... 


... 


5 


9 



66 
TABLE XIV. 

CHEST GIRTH. 





Average. 


Average 

relative 

to stature 

= 100. 


Paniyans 


CM. 1 
81-5 : 51-8 


Kurubas ... ... 


83-8 


511 


Kotas 


83 


51 


Pal Kurumbas ... 


79-2 


50-3 


Lambadis 


82-5 


50-2 


Kanarese Parialis 


81-3 


50-2 


Tiyyans , 


82 


50-1 


Brabmans (Madras city) ... 


81 


49-8 


Koramas 


79-4 


49-8 


Kongas ... 


79-2 


49-8 


Irnlas 


79-4 


49-7 


Muppas ... 


77-4 


49-1 


Cberumans ... 


78-4 


491 


Vellalas 


79-8 


49-1 


Badagas 


80-4 


49 


Todas 


83 


48-9 


Tamil Pariabs 


79-3 


48-9 


Kammalans 


78 


48-8 


Malaialis 


80 


48-8 


Pallis 


79-2 


48-7 



The measurements were taken round tlie nipples, the 
arms being above the head, and hands joined. 

The English average = 93*9, i.e.^ 54 relative to stature 
= 100 (Topinard). 



67 
TABLE XV. 

BREADTH OF SHOULDERS. 





Average. 


Average 

relative 

to stature 

= 100. 


Tiyyans 




CM 

40-3 


' 24-6 
24-5 


Kammalans 




39-2 


Yellalas 


•• 


39-7 


24-4 


Tamil Pariahs 




39-4 


24-3 


Kongas ... 




38-7 


24-3 


Brahmans (Madras city) 




39-3 


24-2 


Pallis 




39-4 


24-2 


Knrnbas ... ... ... 




39-5 


24-1 


Irulas ... ... ... 




38-5 
39-4 


24-1 
24 


Badagas 




Kanarese Pariahs 




38-8 


24 


Lambadis 




39-5 


24 


Pal Knrumbas 




37-8. 


24 


Malaialis 


... 


38-8 


23-7 


Koramas 




37-7 


23-7 


Cherumans 




37 


23-5 
23-2 


Todas 




39-3 


Kotas 




37-7 


231 


Paniyans 


•• 


35-9 


22-8 


Mnppas 




35-3 


22-4 



:x 



'"^n 



oo 



TABLE XVT. 

SUMMARY OF MEASUREMENTS OF BRAHMANS OF MADRAS 
CITY AND TaTTAR BRAHMANS OF MALABAR. 





Madras. 


Pattar. 


Weight 


115 lb. 


1 

112 lb. 


Height 


1625 cm 


164-3 cm. 1 

1 


Height, sitting ... ... ... 


85-4 


85-6 'i 


Height, kneeling 


119-2 


121-3 , 


Height to gladiohis 


1221 


122-7 1 


Span of arms 


173-3 


173 


Chest 


81 


83-9 1 

1 


Middle finger to patella 


101 


11-3 i 


Shoulders 


39-3 


41 'I 


Cubit ... 


46 


46-2 


Hand, length 


18-3 


18-6 


Hand, breadth 


8 


8-2 


Middle finger 


11-6 


11-8 


Hips 26' 


271 


Foot, length 


25-9 


25-8 


Foot, breadth ... ... ... 


8-7 


8-9 


Cephalic length ... 


18-6 


18-8 


Cephalic breadth 


14-2 


14 


' Cephalic index 


76-5 


745 


Bigoniac ... 


10 


10-1 


Bizygomatio 


12-9 

• 


12-9 


Maxillo-zygomatic index 


, 77-7 


78-4 


Nasal height ... 


4-7 


4-7 


Nasal breadth 


3-6 


3-6 ^ 


Nasal index ... ... ... 


76-7 


76-5 i 


Facial angle 


69 


68 



^ ^ 

MADEAS GOVERNMENT MUSEUM. 



Bulletin, Vol. II, No. 2. 



ANTHROPOLOGY. 



Eurasians of Madras and Malabar; 

Note on Tattooing; Malag:asy-Nias-Dravidians ; 

Toda Petition. 

With Ten Plates. 



BY 



EDGAR THURSTON, 

SCPBEINTENDENT, MaDBAS GOVERNMENT MUSEUM, 




MADRAS! 

PBINTED BY THE SUPERINTENDENT^ GOVERNMENT PRESS. 

TPrice, 1 rupea.] 18 98. 



BY EDGAR THURSTON. 



' . Vol. I. 

No. 1. — Pearl and Chank Fisheries of the. Gulf of 
Manaar. 

No. 2, — Note on Tours along the Malabar Coast. 

No. 3. — Eamesvaram Island and Fauna of the Gulf of 
Manaar. 

No. 4. — Anthropology of the Tod as and Kotas of the 
NiLGiRi Hills; and of the Brahmans, Kam- 
malans, Pallis and Pariahs of Madras City. 

Vol. 11. 

No, 1. — Anthropology of the Badagas and Iruxas of the 
NiLGiRis; Paniyans of Malabar ; Chinese-Tamil 
Cross; Cheruman Skull; Kuruba or Kurumba ; 
Summary of Results. 



MADRAS GOVEENMENT MUSEUM. 



Bulletin, Vol. II, No. 2. 



A:N'THIlOPOLOaY 



Eurasians of Madras and Malabar ; 

Note on Tattooing; Malagasy-Nias-Dravidians; 

Toda Petition. 

With Ten Plates. 



BY 



EDGAR THURSTON, 

Superintende:st, Madeas Government Museum. 



MADRAS: 

PRINTED BY THE SUPERINTENDENT, GOVERNMENT PRESS. 

18 98. 



CONTENTS. 



BUEASTANS OF MADRAS AND MALABAR 

NOTE ON TATTOOING 

M AL A G AS Y-NI AS-DR AY IDI AN S 

TODA PETITION 



PAGS 


69- 


-114 


115- 


-118 


119- 


-127 


128- 


-130 



ANTHEOFOLOGY. 



EUEASIANS OF MADEAS CITY AND MALABAE. 



It mnst be explained^ at the outset, tLat my subjects for 
measurement and investigation were, with a special object 
in view, taken from the poorer classes, including the poorest 
of the poor, who feel more keenly than their more prosper- 
ous brethren the struo"gle for existence and the pinch of 
poverty, and whose physique I was specially anxious to 
gauge correctly. 

I learn from Sir W. Hunter's * Brief History of the 
Indian People ' that the first modern Englishman, known 
to have visited India, was Thomas Stephens, Kector of the 
Jesuits' College in Salsette, in 1579. The name of the first 
Eurasian has not, in like manner, been handed down to 
posterity. The term Eurasian (Bur-asian) may, after the 
definition in ' Hobson-Jobson,'^ be summed up as a modern 
name for persons of mixed European and Native blood, 
devised as being more euphemistic than half-caste or half- 
breed, and more precise than East Indian. According to 
Stocqueler (Handbk. Brit. India, 1854) the name Eur- 
asian was invented by the Marquis of Hastings. By ' Ali 
Baba' ^ the Eurasian is dismissed, with playful satire, in 
the following terms : " The Native papers say ' deport 
him ' ; the white paj^ers say ' make him a soldier ' ; and the 
Eurasian himself says * make me a Commissioner, give me 
a pension.' '^ In the ' Cyclopaedia of India ' Dr, Balfour 
defines East Indian as '^ a term which has been adopted 
by all classes in India to distinguish the descendants of 
Europeans and Native mothers. Other names, such as 
half-caste, chatikar, and chi-chi are derogatory designa- 
tions. Chattikar is from chitta (trousers) and kar (a person 
who uses them). The Muhammadans equally wear trousers, 
but concealed by their long outer go\Yns. The East Indians 

^ Yule and Burnell. ^ ' Twenty-one Days in India.' 

K 



70 

are also known as Farangi (Franks), a person of Europe. 
The humbler East Indians, if asked their race, reply that 
they are Wallandez or Oollanday, which is a modification of 
Hollandais, the name having been brought down through the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries from the Dutch. East 
Indians have, in India, all the rights and privileges of Euro- 
peans. Races with a mixture of European with Asiatic 
blood possess a proud and susceptible tone of mind/^ For 
the purposes of the Lawrence Asylum, Ootacamund {q.v. 
p. lOO), the word "East Indian '' is restricted to the chil- 
dren of European fathers by East Indian or Native mothers, 
or of East Indian fathers and mothers, both of whom are 
the children of European fathers. 

Some Eurasians have, it may be noted, had decorations 
or knighthood conferred on them, and risen to the highest 
possible position in, and gained the blue ribbon of Grovern- 
mient service. Others have held, or still hold, positions of 
distinction in the various learned professions, legal, medical, 
educational, and ecclesiastical. 

By a recent ruling of the Government of India it has 
been decided that Eurasians appointed in England to official 
posts in India are, if they are not statutory natives, to be 
treated as Europeans as regards the receipt of '' exchange 
compensation allowance.'"' 

The Danes are said (Rush) to have produced, through 
Hindu women, children of European type and vigour, while 
such is certainly not the case with other European nations. 

It is not generally known that the Anglo-Eurasian owes 
his origin, in great measure, to the direct influence of pep- 
per. For I learn that ^' the English East India Company 
had its origin in the commercial rivalry between London 
and Amsterdam. In 1599, the Dutch raised the price of 
pepper against the English from 35. to 6.s. and 8.s. per pound. 
The merchants of London held a meeting on the 22nd 
September at Founder's Hall, with the Lord Mayor in the 
chair, and agreed to form an association for the purpose of 
trading directly with India, and on the 8th October, 1600, 
the following ships were taken up for the first voyage to. 
the East Indies : — 

Men. Tons. 
''Malice Scourge" .. ..200 600 

'* Hector" .. 
" Ascension " 
*' Susan" .. 
A pinnace . , 



100 


300 


80 


240 


80 


240 


40 


100 



PL. XVI. A. 





MADRAS EURASIAN. 



71 

'^ Nearly forty years later, in 1639^ Mr. Francis Day, 
tlie Chief of the British factory at Armagaon, purchased 
from the Edja of Chandragiri a site called Maderaspatam 
or Chinipatnain, built Fort St. George, and became the 
founder of Madras, which was the first territorial possession 
of the Company in India." 

The influence of the various European nations — Portu- 
guese, Dutch, British, Danish, and French — which have 
at different times acquired territory in peninsular India, is 
clearly visible in the polyglot medley of Eurasian surnames, 
c.^.,Gromez, Gonsalvez, Pereira, Eozario, Cabra],DaCruz, Da 
Costa, Da Silva,Da Souza, Fernandez, Fonseca,Lazaro,Henri- 
quez, Xavier,Mendonza, Kodriguez, Saldana, Almeyda,Luxa, 
Heldt, Yan Spall, Jansen, Augustine, Brisson, Corneiilea 
La Grange, Lavocat, Pascal, Caubo (Corbeau, Mr. Crow ?), 
De Vine, Aubert, Eyan, McKertish, Macpherson, Harris, 
Johnson, Smith, &c. Little did the early adventurers, 
in the dawn of the seventeenth century, think that, as the 
result of their alliances with the Native women, within three 
centuries banns of marriage would be declared weekly in 
Madras churches between, for example, Ben Jonson and 
Alice Almeyda, Emmanuel Henricus and Mary Smith, 
Augustus Pozario and Minnie Fonseca, John Harris and 
Clara Corneille, &c. Yet this has come to pass, and the 
Eurasian holds a recognised place among the half-breed 
races of the world resulting from modern ' civilization/ 

The pedigree of the early Eurasian community is veiled 
in some obscurity. But the various modes of creation of a 
half-breed, which were adopted in those early days, when 
the sturdy European pioneers first came in contact with 
the Native females, were probably as follows : — 

A. European man (pure) B. Native woman (pure). 



c. 


Male offspring of 
A-i-B (first croos). 


D. Native woman. 


E. 


Female offspring of ' 
A+B (first cross). 


F. European man. 




G. Native man. 


H. 


Male offspring of 
+D. 


I. Cross-female offspring of 
A + B. 




J. Native woman. 




/- 


L. Cross-male offspring of 


K. 


Female offspring of 


A+B. 




C +D. 


M. European. 
N. Native man. 



The Eurasian Imlf-breed, thus estaLlished, lias been 
perpetuated by a variety of possible combiuatious : — 

Eurasian woman. 



European man 
Eurasian man 
Native man 



Native woman. 
Native woman. 
Eurasian woman. 
European woman, 
r Eurasian woman. 



European woman. 

In the early days of the British occupation of Madras, 
the traders and soldiers, arriving with an inadequate equip- 
ment of females, contracted alliances, regular or irregular, 
with the women of the country. And in these early days, 
when our territorial possessions were keenly contested with 
both European and Native enemies, an attempt was made, 
under authority from high places, to obtain, through the 
medium of the British soldier, and in accordance with the 
creed that crossing is an essential means of improving a 
race, and rendering it vigorous by the infusion of fresh 
blood from a different stock, a good cross, which should be 
available for military purposes. The problem of a Eurasian 
army is, therefore, no new one, but one which was dealt 
with long ago in a practical manner, such as is no longer 
possible in these more advanced times. Later on, as the 
numbers of the British settlers increased, connexions, either 
with the Native women, or with the females of the recently 
founded Eurasian type, were kept up owing to the diffi- 
culty of communication with the mother-country, and con- 
sequent difficulty in securing English brides by the ordiuary 
rules of sexual selection. Of these barbaric days the 
detached or semi-detached bungalows in the spacious 
grounds of the big private houses in; Madras remain as a 
memorial. At the present day the conditions of life in 
India are, as the result of steamer traffic, very different, 
and far more wholesome. The Eurasian man seeks a wife 
as a rule among his own community ; and in this manner 
the race is mainly maintained, though examples of first 
crosses, and the results of re-crossing between European 
and Eurasian are frequently met with. 

The number of Eurasians within the limits of the Madras 
Presidency was returned, at the Census, 189J, as 26,643, 
But on this point I must call Mr. I[. A. Stuart, the Census 
Commissioner, into the witness box. " The number of 
Eurasians," he writes, '^ is 26,643, which is 20*76 per cent. 



PL. XVII. 




MADRAS EURASIAN. 



73 

more tLan tLe number returned in 1881/^ The fio^ures for 
the last three enumerations are given in the following 
statement :— 

Number of Eurasians. 

Year. Total. Males. Fetoales. 

1871 .. .. 2fi,460 13,091 13,359 

1881 .. .. 21,892 1<S969 10,923 

1891 .. ..- 26,648 13,141 13,502 

" It will be seen that, between 1871 and 1881^ there 
was a great decrease, and that the numbers in 1891 are 
slightly higher than thej were twenty years ago. The 
iigurcs, however, are most untrustworthy. The cause is 
not far to seek ; many persons, who are really Natives, 
claim to be Eurasians, and some who are Eurasians return 
themselves as Europeans. It might be thought that the 
errors due to these circumstances would be fairly constant, 
but the district figures show that this cannot be the case. 
Take Malabar, for example, which has the largest number 
of Eurasians after Madras, and where the division between 
Native Christians with European names and people of real 
mixed race is very shadowy. In 1871 there were in this 
district 5,413 Eurasians ; in 1881 the number had appa- 
rently fallen to 1,676, while in 1891 it had again risen to 
4,193, or, if we include south-east Wynaad, as we should 
do, to 4.439. It is to be regretted that trustworthy statis- 
tics cannot be obtained, for the question whether the true 
Eurasian community is increasing or decreasing is of con- 
siderable scientific and administrative importance. 

" The Eurasians form but a very small proportion of 
the community, for there is only one Eurasian in every 
1,337 of the population of the Madras Presidency, and it 
is more than probable that a considerable proportion of 
those returned as Eurasians are in reality pure Natives who 
have embraced the Christian religion, taken an English or 
Portuguese name, and adopted the European dress and 
mode of living. 

" In the matter of education, or at least elementary 
education, they are more advanced than any other class of 
the community, and compare favourably with the population 
of any country in the world. They live for the most part 
in towns, nearly one-half of their number being found ia 
the city of Madras.'' 



74 



In connection with the fact that, at times of Census, 
Native Christians and Pariahs, who masquerade in Euro- 
pean clothes, return themselves as Eurasians, aud vice verm, 
it may be accepted that some benefit must be derived by 
the individual in return for the masking of his or her 
nationality. And it has been pointed out to me that (as 
newspaper advertisements testify) many ladies will employ 
a Native ayah rather than a Eurasian nurse, and that some 
employers will take Eurasian clerks into their service, but 
not Native Christians. It occasionally happens that pure- 
bred Natives, with European name and costume, successfully 
pass themselves off as Eurasians, and are placed on a foot- 
ing of equality with Eurasians in the matter of diet, when 
they are in prison, being allowed the luxury of bread, 
butter, coffee, &c. 

Mr. Stuart had at his command no special statistics of 
the occupations resorted to by Eurasians, but states that 
the majority of them are clerks, while very few indeed 
obtain their livelihood by agriculture. In the course of my 
enquiry, which included a majority of bread-winners and a 
sprinkling of loafers, the following varied occupations were 
recorded. It is noteworthy that, of 130 cases, no less than 
ti3 returned their occupation as " fitter^' : — 



Accountant. 

Attendant, Lunatic Asylum. 

Baker. 

Bandsman. 

Bill-collector. 

Blacksmith. 

Boarding-house keeper. 

Boatswain. 

Boilersmith. 

Carpenter. 

Chemist's assistant. 

Clerk, Governmeiit. 

Clerk, private. 

Commission agent. 

Compositor. 

Compounder. 

Contractor. 

Copper-smith. 

Crane attendant, harbour. 

Draftsman. 

Electric-tram driver. 

Electric-tram inspector. 

Engine-driver, Ice factory. 



Evangelist. 

Filer. 

Fitter. 

Fireman. 

Hammerer. 

Harness-maker. 

Jewel-smith. 

Jointer. 

Labourer. 

Livery-stable keeper. 

Mechanic. 

Moulder. 

Painter. 

Petition-writer. ' 

Police inspector. 

Porter. 

Printer. 

Proof-reader. 

Railway — 

Auditor. 

Chargeman. 

Engine-driver. 

Engineer. 



PL. XVIII. 




Ifet«?,,i^r^5sr«/,r«t;£^/f2iz-:«£2,^;ari; 






MADRAS EURASIANS. 



75 



E ail way — 

Carriage examiner. 
Reporter. 
Eivetter. 
Saddler. 
Schoolmaster. 
Sexton. 
Spring- smith. 
Stereotyper. 
Steward. 
Telegraph clerk. 
Watch-maker. 
Watchman. 



Eailwa}" — 
Goods clerk. 
Guard. 

].ocomotive inspector. 
Parcel clerk. 
Prosecuting inspector. 
Shunter. 
Signaller. 
Stationm aster. 
Store-keeper. 
Ticket- collector. 
Tool-keeper. 
Block- signaller. 

The bandsmen, who appeared before me, were tested 
with the apparatus for estimating appreciation of difference 
in musical pitch. All responded well to the test, except 
the performer on the big drum, who broke down hopelessly 
at a very early stage. 

The Eurasians' fancy turns not lightly, but seriously to 
thoughts of love at a very early age, with the result that 
they sometimes marry, with all the pomp of bridal dress, 
cake and wine, when barely out of leading strings, and 
become burthened with the cares, anxieties, and responsi- 
bilities of paternity and maternity when they are mere boys 
and girls. One of my subjects, indeed, volunteered the 
information that he married a child-bride before she 
reached puberty. Whether they marry because, as with 
the Hindu, an unmarried man is looked down upon as 
having no social status, and as being an almost useless 
member of society, or whether for the " causes for which 
matrimony was ordained,'^ I am unable to state precisely. 
But 1 may hazard a guess that it is because they have 
not acquired the power to " subordinate animal appetite to 
reason, forethought, and prudence/' Whatever the reason, 
the results are but too frequently disastrous, — a plethora 
of children, brought up in poverty, hunger, and dirt ; 
but little to earn and many to keep ; domestic unrest ; 
insolvency ; and destitution. A virtuous state of celibacy 
has been recently advocated as a substitute for early mar- 
riage, and the argument brought forward that, if a man 
has sufficient intelligence and unselfishness to abstain from 
dragging a wife and children into poverty and misery, he 
will be sufficiently intelligent and unselfish to lead a pure 
lite, and not swell the ranks of the illegitimate. 

From the analysis of a hundred male cases, in which 
enquiries were specially made with reference to the married 



76 

state in individuals ranging in age from 21 to 50, with an 
average age of 33, I. learn that 74 were married at the 
average age of 22-23 ; that 141 male and 130 female 
children had been born to them ; and that 26, whose 
average age was 25, were unmarried. The limits of age of 
the men at the time of marriage were 32 and 16; of the 
women 25 and 13. The greatest number of children born 
to a single pair was 10. In only three cases, out of the 
se^/enty-four, was there no issue. In fifty cases, which were 
investigated, o£ married men with an average age of 34, 207 
children had been born, of whom 91 had died, for the most 
part in very early life, from " fever ^' and other causes, among 
which malnutrition, and consequent marasmus, must take 
a foremost place. Remembering that house-rent should be 
paid, and that clothes and food have to be acquired, how, I 
ask myself, ean cases such as the following lead other thaa 
a miserable existence, void of the pleasure of life ? 



Pay per 


Age. 


Age of 


Children 


mensem. 


marriage. 


living. 


K3. 


YRS. 


YRS. 


NO. 


15 


26 


21 


3 


10 


27 


18 


5 


15 


25 


21 


2 


20 


39 


19 


7 


6 


38 


22 


2 


18 


27 


18 


6 


10 


25 


19 


2 


30 


40 


20 


8 



To appreciate what misery is indicated here, it is only 
necessary to convert the rupees into annas, and divide 
them among the number of mouths to be fed, leaving 
house-rent and clothes out of the question ; and, whether 
the rent be paid or no, clothes must of necessity be forth- 
coming — no mere dhoti, languti, or sari, but clothes of 
European device, if not of the latest fashion. 

The practical result of their want of thrift, and the wide- 
spread tendency to allow expenditure to exceed income, is 
that Eurasians in Government service frequently find them- 
selves caught in the meshes of Rule 39, regulating the 
conduct of Grovernment servants, which lays down that '' it 
is undesirable that a man, who is in a chronic and hopeless 
condition of indebtedness, should be retained in the Govern- 
ment service. The anxieties attendant upon such a state 
must necessarily greatly detract from the value of the 



PL. XIX. 








I 



I 




■'y/A>;„^,^-:-', /4M&i^, 



MADRAS EURASIAN. 




77 

debtor's work, besides exposing him to tempf;ations to 
dishonesty, which, in such circumstances, it is verj difficult 
to resist/^ The following figures, gleaned from the 
statistics of the Insolvent Court during the five last years, 
bear directly on the condition referred to : — 

Number of 
Year. petitions filed 

by Eurasians. 



1893 
1«94 
1895 
1896 
1897 



45 
65 
35 
51 
53 



Number of 




petitions 


filed 


Eurasian 


during" 


the 


percentage 


year. 






233 




19 


255 




21, 


237 




14 


268 




19 


297 




18 



Total .. 239 1,290 18 

The percentage is certainly very high, when the Eurasian 
population is compared with the microscopic minority of 
Europeans, and the overwhelming majority of the Native 
community. 

As examples of Eurasian improvidence, and a too literal 
adherence to the old time doctrine of taking no thought 
for the morrow, for the morrow shall take thought for the 
things of itself, the following cases may be cited : — 

Debt in 
year's pay. 

32-33 years. 
7-8 



Monthly pay. 


Total deb 


RS. 


E8. 


9 


3,500 


15 


1,400 


20 


1,450 


30 


5,800 


40 


6,700 


50 


5,550 


60 


8,300 



6-7 

16 

13-14 „ 

9-10 „ 

13-14 ,, 

The racial position of Eurasians, aud the proportion of 
black blood in their veins, are commonly indicated, not by 
the terms mulatto, quadroon, octoroon, sambo (or zambo), 
etc., but, as in the case of cotton, jute, coffee, and other 
crops, in fractions of a rupee. The Eurojoean pure breed 
beiiig represented by Es. U-0-0, and the native pure breed 
by 16 annas (=1 rupee), the resultant cross is, by refer- 
ence to colour and other tests, gauged as being half an 
anna in the rupee (faint admixture of black blood ; 
approaching European type); eight annas (half and half) ; 



78 

fifteen annas (predominant admixture of black blood; 
approaching native type), etc. 

The Eurasian body being enveloped in clothes, it was 
not till they stripped before me, for the purposes of 
anthropometry, that I became aware how prevalent is the 
practice of tattooing among the male members of the com- 
munity. Nearly all the hundred and thirty men, whom I 
examined in detail, were, in fact, tattooed to a greater or 
less extent on the breasts, upper arms, fore-arms, wrists, 
back of the hands, or shoulders. The following varied 
selection of devices in blue, with occasional red, is recorded 
in my case-book : — 

Anchor. 

Ballet girl witli flag stars and stripes. 

Bracelets round wrists. 

Burmese lady carrying umbrella. 

Burmese lady playing with parrot. 

Bird. 

Bugles. 

Conventional artistic devices. 

Cross and anchor. 

Crown and flags. 

Crossed swords and pistols. 

Dancing girl. 

Dancing girl playing with cobras. 

Elephant. 

Eloral devices. 

Elowers in pot. 

Hands joined in centre of a heart. 

Hands joined and clasping a flower. 

Heart. 

Heart and cross. 

Initials of the individual, his friends, relatives, and 

inamorata, sometimes within a heart or laurel 

wreath. 
Lizard. 

Mercy (word on left breast). 
Mermaid. 

Portraits of youth and his lady-love. 
Princess of Wales. 
Poyal arms and banners. 
Sailing boat. 
Scorpion. 
Solomon's seal. 
Steam boat. 

Svastika (Buddhist emblem), 
Watteau shepherdess.. 



PL. XX. 




CO 

< 

< 

\A 
<! 

< 



79 

Tte moat elaborate patterns were executed hj Burmese 
artists. The initials, which preponderated over other de- 
vices, were, as a rule, in .Eoman^ but occasionally in Tamil 
characters. In many instances the tattooing was barely- 
visible against the dark skin, and the main objects of the 
operation — beauty and personal adornment — completely lost. 
A propos of tattooing in the male sex, the legend goes that 
the goddesses of the tattooers " swam from Fiji, to 
introduce the craft to Samoa, and, on leaving Fiji, were 
commissioned to sing all the way * Tattoo the women, but 
not the men' '\ But they got muddled over it in tFe long 
journey, and arrived at Samoa singing '* Tattoo the men, but 
not the women. '^ ^ 

In colour the Eurasians afford, as is natural in a mixed 
race, examples of the entire colour-scale from sooty-black, 
through sundry shades of brown and yellow, to pale white, 
and even, as a very rare exception, florid or rosy. The 
darkening of the skin in Hindu half-breeds with advancing 
ao^e, and the dark colour of the pudenda, noticed by 
D'Orbigny and Troyer (Bull. Soc Ethnol. May 22nd, 1846), 
were very conspicuous in many cases which came under 
observation. So, too, in individuals with otherwise fair skin, 
was the tell-tale pigment on the neck, knees and elbows, 
as also in the axillae, the glands of which, as in the Native, 
pour out, under the influence of emotion or exercise, a 
profuse watery secretion. The pilous or hairy system, 
which was, in the cases recorded, uniformly black, repeatedly 
conforms as regards its distribution to the native type ; and 
the eyebrows are frequently united across the middle line 
by bushy hairs. The hair of the head may be straight, 
and, when clipped, recall to mind a Bengali Babu with 
his close-cropped hair devoid of parting. Or it may be wavy 
or curly (woolly never), and dressed, like that of a European, 
in a variety of ways, according to the fancy of the owner. 
Premature greyness and baldness, arcus senilis, and early 
senility, were noted in many instances. The colour of the 
iris, like that of the skin, is liable to great variation, from 
lustrous-black to light, with a predominance of dark tints. 
Blue was observed only in a solitary instance. 

The Eurasian resists exposure to the sun better than 
the European, and, while many wear solah topis (sun hats), 
it is by no means uncommon to see a Eurasian walking about 

3 Journ. Anth. Inst., Vol. XVJI, 1888, p. 319. 



80 



in the middle of a Lot day with his head protected only by 
a straw hat or cap. 

In a heated discussion on the ** Anglo-Indian in India,'* 
which his recently been carried on in the columns of the 
* Pioneer,' a retired Indian Staff Corps Colonel snofg'ested 
the raising of a division of eight regiments, two of cavalry, 
si< of infantry, four of the latter to consist of specially 
selected Eurasians only, two of Indo- Europeans only. 
^' If, " he says, '' treated with fair liberality as regards pay, 
promotion, and prospects, I feel every confi:lence that a fine, 
and in every way reliable force may be thus created for 
general service anywhere (like the Native grandly efficient 
army) .... Such force might he very considerably 
expanded later on. Three field batteries, one of Indo- 
Europeans only, and two of Eurasians only, might also be 
added, rendering the force quite complete in itself." Let 
us, bearing in mind that the Eurasian community of the 
Madras Presidency is a limited one on which to draw for 
military purposes, and that many of those who are physi- 
cally fitted would be unwilling to enlist, examine the phy- 
sique of the poorer classes, from the ranks of whom recruits 
would have to be obtained. 

The average height of the Eurasian, according to my 
measurements of 130 subjects, ia 1666 cm. (5 feet 5|), and 
compares as follows with that of the English and various 
Native classes, inhabiting the city of Madras, which have 
been examined by me : — 



English 

E jrasians 

Muhammadans 

Brahmans 

Pallis 

Vellalas 

Pariahs 



QS 








. 170-8 
. 166-6 
. 161-5 
. 1625 
. 16 2-0 
. 162-4 
. 161-9 



The height, as might be expected, comes between that 
of the two parent stocks, European and Native, and had, in 
the cases examined, the wide range of 30'8 cm. — the differ- 
ence between a maximum of 183-8 cm. (6 feet) and a 
minimum of 153 cm. (5 feet). The high ranges between 
maxima and minima {vide tsible xvii), which are specially 
marked in the case of stature and the measurements 
dependent thereon, and of the nose, are readily explained 



81 



on the general principle tLat pure races exhibit a more 
uniform^ and mixed races a variegated type, and thia 
"variation increases as the intermixture progresses (Waitz). 

The story goes that many years ago, during the fighting 
days in Southern India, a Highland regiment, as the result 
of concubinage with the Native women of a certain quarter 
of the city of Madras, left behind them a half-breed off- 
spring, reared up as Natives, whose descendants, are, owing 
to their stature, slill recognised, at the present day, as the 
Madras Highlanders. 

The average weight of my Eurasians, in clothes with 
boots, was a mere 7 st. 9 J lbs. ; the weight ranging between 
12 stone in a flabby individual aged 30 years, and n st. 6 lbs. 
in a man 40 years old. How small this weight is for adults 
may be emphasised by reference to the fact, based on a 
series of experiments, that the weight of growing English 
school boys (in in-door dress with boots on) between the 
ages of 16 and 1 7, ranged, in 79-6 per cent, of the cases 
examined, between 8| stone and 12 st. 5j lbs. Only in 3 
out of 103 cases was the weight below 7 stone.* 

The average chest measurement, taken over the nipples 
with the arms above the head and hands joined, was 79*1 
cm. (31 inches). In the following tabular statement this 
average is compared with the average chest-girth of the 
classes noted above, and with the average relative to 
stature = 100 : — 



English 

Brahmans 

Vellillas .. 

Pariahs 

Pallis 

jM uhammadans 

Eurasians 





A verage 


verage. 


relative to 




stature = 100 


93-9 


54 


81 


49-8 


79-8 


49-1 


79-3 


48-9 


79-2 


48*7 


79 


48 


79-1 


47-5 



The chest-girth of the Eurasians is, then, relatively to 
stature, less than that of any of the classes under review. 
Of far greater importance than actual chest-girth, as every- 
one who has had to deal with recruiting knows full well, is 
the play of the chest, viz., the vital capacity, or extreme 



Fergus and Eodwell. Journ. Anth. Inst., Vol. lY, 1875, p. liiS. 



82 



differential capacity of the lungs. This is best estimated 
by means of a modified gasometer, called the spirometer, 
which registers the total amount of air which can be given 
out by the most forcible expiration following upon a most 
forcible inspiration. Tested with such an instrument, the 
majority of the Eurasians under examination broke down 
owing, in great measure, to the feeble development of the 
pectoral and other inspiratory muscles, whose function is 
to inflate the lungs. 

In the following table the Eurasian shoulder-breadth, 
measured between the external surfaces of the prominences 
of the shoulders about 5 cm. below the acromion, is com- 
pared with that of the same classes as before : — 







Average 




Average. 


relative to 
stature = 100 


Yellalas 


.. 39-7 


24-4 


Pariahs . , 


.. 39-4 


24-3 


Brahmans 


.. 39-3 


24-2 


Muhammadans .. 


.. 39-8 


24 2 


Pallis 


.. 39-4 


24 2 


Eurasians , , 


.. 392 


23-6 



The shoulder-breadth is thus seen to be less, both 
actually and relative to stature, in the Eurasians than in 
the Native classes. The deficiency in breadth must be 
attributed both to narrow osteologicai build, and to the 
feebly developed condition of the deltoid muscles. 

As specimens of the all too common weakly Eurasian 
humanity, whose living was gained with their hands, the 
cases in the two following tables, taken from a very large 
number, may be cited : — 



Age. 


Weight. 


Hei 


ght. 


Chest. 


Occupation. 


YRS. 


ST. LB. 


FT. IN. 


INCHES. 




28 


91 


6 


31-4 


Fitter. 


26 


71 


5 


H 


29-1 


Engine driver 


22 


7-9 


6 


6 


29-5 


Turner. 


21 


7-6 


5 


H 


30-3 


Hammerer. 


29 


7-4 


5 


4i 


29-7 


Do. 


35 


6-6 


5 


2 


26-4 


Printer. 


37 


61 


5 


H 


28 6 


Fitter. 


23 


6-4 


5 


H 


28 5 


Printer. 


19 


5-9 


6 


H 


27 1 


Blacksmith. 



83 



Height. 

FT. IN. 

5-H 

5-8 

6 4^ 
52^ 



Girth of upper arm. 



Relaxed. 

INCHES. 



Contracted. 

INCHES. 



7-3 

8-4 
8-2 



7-9 
9-5 
9-4 



Hand- 
breadth. 

INCHES. 



2-6 
2-6 
2-5 



Girth round 

epigastrium 

(stomacli). 

INCHES. 

23-2 
22-8 



I have, in the course of the present enqairj, examined 
many Native women, engaged as coolies in road-repairing, 
and found arms with good solid muscle, shoulders, and 
chests, of which some of these feebly developed individuals 
might well be envious. But the Indian cooly woman is 
notoriously an excellent beast of burthen, and I recall to 
mind the legend of the Bhutia woman, who is reputed, in 
the days before the hill railway was open, to have carried, 
unaided, a grand piano on her head the whole way from the 
foot of the hills to Darjiling. 

Contrast with the above the following — all tLe direct 
result of re-crossing between European man and Eurasian 
woman. It will be noted that all are, some slightly, others 
considerably above the average. The physiological signi- 
ficance of this fact, and the possibilities in connection there- 
with, are obvious, and need not be dilated on at length. 
Suffice it to state that the product of alliances between 
British men and Eurasian women show the least signs of 
physical degeneration, and possess broader shoulders, hips, 
and hands, greater chest-girth, wider forehead, and more 
muscle, as the result of re-vivification of the stock by direct 
British intervention : — 





Weight, 


Height, 


Chest, 




^ge. 


average 


average 


average 


Occupation, 




7 St. 9i lb. 


5 ft. 5 in. 


31-2 in. 




21 


9-8 


6-7i 


31-5 


Fitter. 


28 


9-3 


5-7i 


83-5 


Do. 


40 


10-9 


5-7 


34-7 


Clerk. 


38 


9-2 


5-7 


32-5 


Labourer. 


22 


94 


5-6 


34 3 


Boihr-smith. 


26 


10 


57i 


33 


Railway guard 



As a clear indication of the physique, which the poor 
Eurasian should aspire to with a view to his becoming a 
soldier^ I publish (table xviii) side by side the averages. 



84 

etc., of a series of physical measurements of 50 sepoys ' of 
the 28th Madras Infantry and of my 130 Eurasians ; and, 
further, in table xix, statistics of the same measurements in 
50 sepoys and 50 Eurasians between the recruiting ages of 
18 and 25. 

Leaving hand-grip, as tested by the dynamometer, in 
which the Eurasians displayed lamentable weakness (an 
average of only 65 lbs.), out of the question, and considering 
weight, chest-girth, and shoulder-breadth, the sepoy aver- 
age was, as shown by the following tabular statement, only 
reached in four cases out of the 50 examined between the 
ages of 19 and 25 : — 



eiglit. 


Chest. 


Shoulde 


LB. 


CM. 


CM. 


127 


86 5 


41-5 


139 


87 


421 


150 


87-5 


43-9 


136 


84-5 


43-3 


125 


84 


416 



Sepoy average 



The Eurasian mean above the average, taken as a whole, 
fell short, as shown below, of the sepoy average : — 

Eurasian mean r? 
above the ^^P^^ 

average. ^^evag^. 

Weight 122 1b. 1-25 lb. 

Chest 82 cm. 84 cm. 

Bhouiders 40-5 „ 41-6 

Dynamometer ., .. 72 4 1b. 80 lb. 



It 



The figures in tables xviii to xxi suffice, of themselves, 
to show that the average physique of the Eurasians is far 
below that required for military purposes. And this defi- 
ciency in physique is accentuated by a study of the following 
tables of comparison drawn up from the detailed figures 
in tables xx and xxi : — 



* The periodical fanatical outbreaks in the Moplah (or M^ppila) com- 
munity of Malabar are well known to us in Southern India. It is of 
interest, therefore, that, since 1895, 150 Moplahs have enlisted in the 25th 
Madras Infantry, which is stationed at Oannanore, under conditions similar 
to those applying to the rest of the Native Army. They have, I am told, 
become most amenable to discipline ; and ti'aining and good diet have 
improved their physique, which was good at the comuiencemeut. 



PL. XXJ. 




MADRAS SEPOY 



85 



WEIGHT, LB. 





80- 
90 


90- 
100 


100- 110- 
110 120 


120- 
130 


130- 
140 


140- 
150 


150- 
160 


Sepoys 




1 


4 


11 


19 


9 


4 


2 


Earasians 


6 


9 


12 


13 


4 


5 


1 


... 



CHEST, CM. 





60-70 


70-80 


80-90 


90-100 


Sepoys 


... 


5 


42 


3 


Eurasians 


3 


33 


14 


... 



SHOULDERS, CM. 





33- 
37 


37- 

38 


38- 
39 


39- 

40 


40- 
41 


41- 
42 


42- 
43 


43- 

44 


44- 

45 


45- 
46 


Sepoys 


... 


.,. 


4 


5 


6 


15 


12 


4 


2 


2 


Eurasians 


9 


10 


8 


9 


10 


2 


... 


2 


... 


... 



Patting the figures in the last three tables in terms of 

percentages, we obtain the following results, which speak 
for themselves : — 

Weight. 

Below A>iove 

IVO LB. 120 LB. 

Sepoys 32 68 

Eurasians 80 20 



Chest. 



Sepoys . 
Eurasians 



Shoulders. 



Sepoys . 
Eurasians 



Below 


Above 


80 CM. 


80 CM, 


10 


90 


72 


28 


Below 


Above 


41 CM. 


41 CM. 


30 


70 


92 


8 



Turninof now to head rneasarements, the averapfe longtii 
of the Eurasian head is 186 cm. and the breadth l^-l cm. 
And it is to be noted that, in 63 per cent, of the cases exam- 
ined, the breadth exceeded 14 cm. In the length of the 
head there is nothing distinctive as between the Eurasians 
and the other cLisses under review, the difference only 
amounting to "1 cm. The breadth of the head, on the con- 
trary, is appreciably greater in Eurasians and Brahmans 
(Aryo-Dra vidians) than in Muhammadans (some of whom are 
immigrants with an admixture g| Dravidian blood) and the 
three indigenous classes, Vellalas, Pallis, and Pariahs : — 





Length. 


Breadth. 


Index 




CM. 


CM. 




Brahmans 


186 


14-2 


76-5 


Eurasians 


18-6 


141 


76 


Muhammadans 


18-7 


13-9 


76-1 


Vellalas . . 


18-6 


13-8 


741 


Pariahs 


18-6 


13-7 


736 


PalHs 


18-6 


13-6 


73 



The relative breadth of the head is very clearly brought 
out by the following analysis of forty subjects belonging to 
each of the six classes, which shows at a glance the prepon- 
derance of heads exceeding 14 cm. in breadth in Eurasians, 
Brahmans, and (to a less degree) Muhammadans, and of 
heads below 14 cm. in breadth in the more dolichocephaHo 
Yelialas, Pallis, and Pariahs : — 



Eurasians . . 
Brahmans . 
M lib ammadans 
Vellalas 
Pariahs 
PaUis 



12-13 



CM. 



13-14 


14r-16 


15-1( 


CM. 


CM. 


CM 


11 


27 


2 


9 


27 


3 


17 


21 




24 


16 


, , 


27 


13 


. . 


30 


7 


, , 



The head of a cross-breed, it has been said, generally 
takes after the father, and the breadth of the Eurasian head 
is a persisting result of European male influence. The effect 
of this influence is clearly demonstrated in the following 
cases, all the result of re-crossing between British men and 
Eurasian women : — 



87 



, 


Length. 


Breadth, 




CM. 


CM. 




19 


14-5 




18-4 


14 2 




19'2 


14-2 




20-2 


14-6 




19 


14-6 




19-4 


143 


Average . , 


19-2 


14-4 


Eurasian average . . 


18-6 


141 



The character of the nose is, as those who have studied 
ethnology in India well appreciate, a most important factor 
in the differentiation of race, tribe, and class, and in the 
determination of pedigree. ^' No one," Mr. Eisley writes/ 
*' can have glanced at the literature of the subject, and 
in particular at the Vedic accounts of the Aryan advance, 
without being struck by the frequent references to the noses 
of the people whom the Aryans found in possession of the 
plains of India. So impressed were the Aryans with the 
shortcomings of their enemies' noses that they often spoke 
of them as ^ the noseless ones/ and their keen perception 
of the importance of this feature seems almost to anticipate 
the opinion of Dr. Collignon that the nasal index raoks 
higher as a distinctive character than the stature, or even 
tbe cephalic index itself.'^ The Eurasian nose, as is natural 
Id a mixed race, exhibirs a combination of the long, narrow 
(leptorhine) type of the higher races, and the broader (raeso- 
rhine and platyrhine) type of the lower classes, as shown 
in the following analysis of the nasal indices of forty Eur- 
asians, Brahmans, Pallis and Pariahs : — 





Leptorhine. 


Mesorhine. 


Platyrhine. 




55-69-9. 


70-84-9. 


85-99-9. 


Eurasians . . 


19 


19 


2 


Brahmans . . 


6 


24 


10 


Pallis 


3 


31 


6 


Pariahs 


2 


25 


13 



It may be noted, en passant^ that the Brahman nose 
belongs to the platyrhine type in 25 per cent, of the cases 
here analysed (tide Bull., Vol. II, No. 1). 

Speaking in general terms, it may be said that the noses 
with high nasal index are possessed by Eurasians of short 

« Journ. Anth. Inst., Vol. XX, 1891, pp. 249-50; see also Madras 
Museum Bull., Yol. II, No. 1, pp. 5^-58. 



88 

stature and dark skin ; noses with low index "by tLose of 
medium stature or tall, and fairer skin. In the following 
table statistics are given concerning the measurements of 
the nose and the nasal index in Eurasians and the other 
classes selected for comparison with them : — 

Lenofth. Breadth. Index. 





CM. 


CM. 




Eurasians . . 


51 


35 


69-5 


Muhammadans 


4-9 


3-4 


70 


Vellalas 


4-7 


3-4 


731 


Brahmans . . 


4-7 


3-6 


76-7 


Pailis 


4-6 


3-6 


77-9 


Pariahs . , 


4-5 


3-6 


80 



Examination of this table shows that there is a gra'dation- 
from the leptorhine type of the Eurasian to the platyrhine 
type of the Pariah, and that the change of type from lepto- 
rhine to platyrhine is due to shortening of the length of the 
nose rather than to increase in its breadth. For, as the 
figures show, while there is a difference of '6 cm. betweea 
the average lengths of the Eurasian and Pariah noses, 
there is only a difference of '2 cm. in the average breadths 
thereof. The difference in the length of the nose is clearly 
brought out by comparison, in forty members of each of my 
six classes, of the number of times in which the length 
reached from 5 to 6 cm. or from 4 to 5 cm. 

Length. 

t 

5-6 ( 

Eurasians . . . • . »- , 

Muhammadans • • 

Vellalas 

Brahmans . . . . , . . 

Pailis 

Pariahs 

The results obtained, in like manner, by comparison of 
tbe breadth of the nose are not nearly so eloquent, though 
the greater breadth of the nose in individual Pariahs is en 
evidence : — 

Breadth. 



5-6 CM. 


4-5 CM 


21 


19 


16 


24 


6 


34 


5 


35 


5 


35 


1 


39 



Eurasians . . 

Muhammadans 

Brahmans . . 

Yellalas 

Pailis 

Pariahs 



4-5 CM. 


3-4 CM. 


1 


39 


2 


38 





40 


1 


39 


3 


37 


5 


35 



8d 

In the subjoined table, based on tbe examination of forty- 
members of each class, who are classified according to their 
nasal index, the high proportion of Earasians, Muhammad- 
ans and Yellalas with indices ranging between 60 and 70, 
and of Brahmans, Pallis, and Pariahs with indices ranging 
between 80 and 90, is at once manifest, and requires no 
comment :— 





60-70. 


70-80. 


80-90. 


90-lC 


Eurasians . . 


19 


17 


3 


1 


Muhamnaadans 


17 


18 


4 


I 


YeUalas . . 


14 


22 


3 


1 


Brahmans . . • 


6 


19 


14 


1 


Pallis 


3 


25 


9 


' 3 


Paiiahs 


2 


17 


19 


2 



Some final words are necessary on liabilitj to certain 
diseases, as a differentiating character between Eurasian 
and European. The Census Commissioner, 1891, states that 
Eurasians seem to be peculiarly liable to insanity and 
leprosy. To these should be added elephantiasis (filarial 
disease), concerning which Surgeon-Major J. Maitland 
writes as follows ' : '^ Almost all the old writers on elephan- 
tiasis believed that the dark races were more susceptible to 
the disease than white people ; but it is extremely doubt- 
ful if this is the case. It is true that in those countries 
where the disease is endemic, the proportion of persons 
affected is much greater amongst the blacks than amongst 
the whites ; but it has to be borne in mind that the habits 
of the former render them much more liable to the disease 
than the latter. The majority of the white people, being 
more civilised, are more careful regarding the purity of 
their drinking-water than the Natives, who are proverbially 
careless in this respect. In India, although it is compara- 
tively rare to meet with Europeans affected with the disease, 
yet such cases are from time to time recorded. Eurasians 
are proportionately more liable to the disease than pure 
Europeans, but not so much so as Natives. Doctors Patter- 
son and Hall of Bahia ^ examined the blood of 309 persons 
in that place, and found the following proportions affected 
with filaria ; of whites, 1 in 26 ; of blacks, 1 in lOJ ; of the 
mixed race, 1 in 9. Doctor Laville^ states that in the Society 
Islands, out of a total of 13 European and American residents, 

' ' Elephantiasis and allied disorders.' Madra.s, 1891. 

* ' Veterinarian.' June 1879. 

* ' Endemic skin and other diseases of India.' — Fox and Far^uhar, 



90 

It were affected with elephantiasis. Taking all these facts 
into consideration, together with our knowledge of the 
pathology of the disease, I do not think we are justified in 
saying that the black races are more snsceptihie to the 
disease than white people. On the other liand, owing to the 
nature of their habits, they are much more liable to the 
diseases than are the white races." 

During the five years, 1893 — 97, 98 Eurasians suffer- 
ing from filarial diseases were admitted into the Genera] 
Hospital, Madras. 

To Surgeon-Colonel W. A. Lee_, Superintendent of the 
Grovernment Leper Asylum, Madras, I am indebted for tlie 
following note on leprosy in its relation to the Eurasian 
and European communities : — 

*' You ask me for information as to the occurrence of 
leprosy among Europeans and Eurasians, and for statistics 
of the numbers which were treated in the Grovernment 
Leper Asylum during the five years, 1893 — 97. You also 
add that you wish to bring out the point that leprosy is a 
distinguishing character as between Eurasians and Euro- 
peans. 

'* Although the latter may possess greater vigour of 
constitution, and, therefore, a better capacity of resistance, 
they are by no means immune to the disease, which, in the 
majority of instance, is contracted by them through coitus 
with leprous individuals. 

" Leprosy is one of the endemic diseases of tropical 
and sub -tropical countries, to the risk of contracting which 
Europeans who settle on the plains in India, and their 
offspring from unions with the irfhabitants of the land, as 
well as the descendants of the latter, become exposed, since, 
by the force of circumstances, they are thrown into inti- 
mate contact with the Native population. 

" A portion of the accommodation of the Government 
Tjeper Hospital at Madras, which was founded in 1841, is 
reserved for European and Eurasian lepers; but little can be 
gleaned from the records as regards the incidence of the 
disease on the former class, as scanty attention appears 
to have been bestowed on accuracy of classification. For 
instance, of 1 J * Europeans ' who were under treatment 
in the years 1S90 — 97 {vi-le table xxii), all save two had 
their birth-place in India or Burma, so that few of them 
could have been of pure or unmixed European parentage. 



91 

** The Eurasian commiinity farnislies a considerable 
number of lepers, and the disease, once introduced into a 
family, has a tendency to attack sevei-al of its members, and 
to re-appear in successive generations, occasionally skipping 
one — a feature akin to the biological phenomenon known as 
atavism, but of perhaps doubtful analogy, for the possibility 
of a fresh infection or inoculation has always to be borne in 
mind. There are numerous instances of such hereditary 
transmission among the patients, both Native and Eurasian, 
in the Grovernment Leper Hospital. 

" The spread of the disease by contagion is slow, the 
most intimate contact even, such as that between parent 
and child, often failing to effect inoculation. Still there 
is much evidence in support of its being inoculable by 
cohabitation, prolonged contact, wearing the same clothing, 
sharing the dwelling, using the same cooking and eating 
utensils, and even by arm-to-arm vaccination. Influenced 
by a belief in the last mentioned cause, vaccination was 
formerly regarded with much susjoicion and dislike by- 
Eurasians in Madras. But their apprehensions on this score 
have abated since animal vaccine was substituted for the 
humanised material. It has also for long been a popular 
belief among the same class that the suckling of their infants 
by infected Native wet-nurses is a common source of the 
disease. 

*' Attempts to reproduce leprosy from supposed pure 
cultures of the leprosy bacillus have invariably failed ; and 
tnis strengthens the belief that the disease would die out if 
sufferers from the tubercular or mixed forms were segre- 
gated, and intermarriage with members of known leprous 
families interdicted. Experience shows that, where such 
marriages are freely entered into, a notable prevalence of 
the disease results, as in Pondicherry for example, where 
the so-called Creole population is said to contain a large 
proportion of lepers from this cause." 

Writing concerning the prevalence of insanity in differ- 
ent castes, the Census Commissioner, 1891, states that " ib 
appears from the statistics that insanity is far more pre- 
valent among the Eurasians than among any other class. 
The proportion is 1 insane person in GYevy 410. For 
England and Wales the proportion is 1 in every 807, and 
it is significant that the section of the population of 
Madras, which shows the greatest liability to insanity, is that 
which has an admixture of European blood. 1 have no 



92 

information reg-arding tlie prevalence of insanity among- 
Karasians for any otijer province or State of India except 
Mysore, and tliere the proportion is 1 in 306/' 

For the statistics relating to insanity given in table 
XTfiv, I am indebted to Surgeon-Captain C. H. Leet Palk, 
Superintendent of the Glovernnient Asylum. It was found 
impossible to separate Europeans into home-bred and 
country-bred ; and it is Very possible that some Eurasians 
are included among them. The total number of Eurasians, 
recorded as being admitted into the asylum during the five 
years 1893 — 97, was 49, viz., 6*59 per cent, of the total ad- 
missions. Leaving out of question the Europeans, in whom, 
owing to the preponderance of the male sex (including 
soldiers) in Madras, a greater number of male than female 
lunatics is to be expected, and considering only Eurasians 
and Natives, the far higher proportion of female as com- 
pared with male lunatics in the Eurasian than in the Native 
community, is very conspicuous. Taking, for example, the 
numbers remaining in the asylum in 1894, whereas the 
proportion of Eurasian males to females was 33: 31, that 
of Natives was 30*6 : 6'8, and the high proportion of female 
Eurasian inmates is visible in the remaining years under 
review. The subject seems to be one well worthy of 
further study by those competent to deal with it. 

The alleged causes of insanity in the 49 Eurasian cases 
were as follows : — 

Hereditary . . . . . . . . 10 

Domestic trouble . . . » . . 10 

Irregular sexual habits , . . . . . 6 

Disappointment . . • . . . . , 4 

Epilepsy . . . . • • . . . . 4 

Nervous shock . . . . . . . . 4 

l>ove and jealousy , . . . . . 3 

Intemperance . . • • . . . . 2 

Sun-stroke , , . . . . . . 2 

Congenital . . . . . . . . 1 

Senile . . . . . . . . , , 1 

Privation and starvation . . . , , , I 

Keligion . . , . . . , , . . 1 

Fever . . . . . , . . . . 1 

On the conclusion of my investigation of the Eurasians 
of the city of Madras, I proceeded to Calicut, the capital 
of the Malabar district, as being the most convenient centre 
for comparing the Eurasians of the west, with those of the 



93 

east coast. Mj visit was by cbance coincident with tlie 
commemoration of the four hundredth anniversary of the 
arrival of Yasco da Gama at Calicut after his discovery of 
the sea-route from Europe to India, which I celebrated in. 
a unique manner by recording the physique of the com- 
munity resulting-, in the first instance, from alliances be- 
tween the Portuguese adventurers and the attractive Native 
women, and left as a legacy to the later British occupants. 
Concerning the origin of the Indo-l^ortuguese half-breed 
1 learn ^'^ that, on his return from the recapture of Qoa, 
Albuquerque brought with him the women he had carried 
away when the Portuguese were driven out of the place. 
As soon as affairs became tolerably settled again at that 
port, he had them converted to Christianity, and married 
them to Portuguese men. No less than 450 of his men 
were thus married in Goa, and others who desired to follow 
their example were so numerous that Albuquerque had 
great difficulty in granting their requests. The marriage 
of Portuguese men to Native women had already been 
sanctioned by Dom Manoel, but this privilege was only to 
be conceded to men of proved character, and who had 
rendered good services. Albuquerque, however, extended 
the permission to marry far beyond wbat he was authorised 
to do. and he took care that the women so married were the 
daughters of the principal men of the land. This he did in 
the hope of inducing them to become Christians. To those 
who were married Albuquerque allotted lands, houses and 
cattle, so as to give them a start in life, and all the landed 
property which had been in possession of the Moorish mos- 
ques and Hindu pagodas he gave to the principal churches 
of the city, which he dedicated to '' Santa Catherina.^' 

The very names of my subjects recalled to mind Pedro 
Alvares Cabral, who anchored before Calicut in 1500, and 
established a factory at Cochin ; the first Portuguese 
Grovernor, Dom Francisco de Almeida ; Andre Furtado de 
Mendonca, who concluded a treaty with the king of Calicut ; 
and many others, whose exploits are handed down to posterity 
in the Indo-Portuguese archives. Subjoined is a comparative 
statement showing the names of the Eurasians, whom I 
have personally examined in Madras and Malabar, A 
cursory glance thereat shows a marked preponderance of 
Portuguese names in Malabar, which is readily explained 

\^ Danvers — •' The Portuguese in India ', 1894. 



94 



by reference to tlio history of tlie Portufruose in India, 
aided by a map showing how thickly studded with Portu- 
guese settlements the west coast was as compared with the 
east coast : — 



Eurasians, 
Madras. 
Almeida. 
Anthony (2). 
Assey. 
Aubert. 
Eantleman. 
Bartholomew. 
JBastian (2). 
Bedford. 
B-llo. 
Biniiy. 
Bird (2). 
Borgonah. 
Braily. 
Brisson. 
Brown. 
Calderwood. 
Carles s. 
Caabo. 
Christian (2). 
Clarke (2). 
Cleary. 
Cleerg. 
CoILlds. 
Corneille. 
CorDelins. 
Da Ci'Sta. 
Da Silva (2). 
Daniel. 
David (2). 
Davids. 
Davy. 
De E,oza. 
Deviiie. 
Dennis. 
Dimney (2). 
Edwards (2). 
Pernandes (2). 
Prench. 
Gambler. 
Goodman. 
Gragbisse. 



Eurasians, 
Calicut. 
Allamo. 
Ambroae. 
Augustine. 

Barbosa (2). 
Bfistian. 
Benjamin (2). 
Benny. 



Cabral (:^). 
Carvalho. 
Conceicao (3). 



Da Cruz (9). 
J >a Gama. 
Da Silva. 
David. 
Davis. 

De Souea (4). 
De Morias (2). 
Diaz (3). 



Escrador (2). 
Fernandes (12). 

Gabriel (2). 
Gomes (3). 
Gonsalvei3. 



95 



Giintlier. 

G Wynne, 

Hall. 

Harris. 

Harr. 

Heaney, 

Heldt. 

Henricns (2). 

Henriques. 

Hogg. 

Howell. 

Huggins (2). 

Hunter (2). 

Isaac. 

Jausen. 

Jennings. 

Johnson (5). 

Judge. 

Langford. 

Lavocat. 

Lazaro (2), 

Lowe. 

Lnxa. 

Mackenzie. 

McKertish. 

Martin (2). 

Morris. 

Murray (2). 



Newman. 

Pascal. 

Paul. 

Peazold. 

Pereira (3). 

Peters. 

Philbert. 

Powell. 

Preston. 

Eeushaw. 

Piglev. 

Rivett. 

Poberts. 

Rodgers. 

Pose. 

Rowland (2). 

Rozario (3;. 

Roz&ro. 

Eyan (2). 



Jacobs^ 
Joel. 
Joseph- 
La Grange, 
Lopez. 



Macarthy, 
Macedo. 
Mark. 
Manoel (2). 
Marquise. 
Mendonca (3). 
Mullen. 
Noronha. 



Pereira (3), 
Phillips. 
Pinto (2). 
Powell. 
Quental. 
Rodriques (4). 
Rozurio ^14). 



96 

Scliooner. ?5allshiiry. 

Sinitli. . Saklaiiha. 

Stuart (2). 
ISturt. 
Tanner. 
Truss. 

Van Spall (2). 

Van Span. 

Varid. 
Wain. Woolger. 

Wil.ler (2). 
Wood. 
Xavier. Xavier (2). 

Thongli Portuguese names persist at tlie present day, 
it does not follow of necessity that their owners have any 
Portuguese blood in. their veins, for some are merely de- 
scendants of Native converts to Christianity, or of house- 
liold slaves of Portuguese officers. '' In Malabar," writes 
the Census Commissioner, 1881, there is a section of 
Europeanized Native Christians — Goa Eoman Catholics — 
some of whom have adopted European dress and customs ; 
and these may have been returned in 1871 as Eurasians ; 
and in all districts the popular interpretation of the word 
^' Eurasian '^ is very liberal. There are many Pariahs and 
Native Christians, who have adopted a travesty of European 
clothes, and who would return themselves as Eurasians, if 
allowed to do so." The division between Native Christians 
and people of mixed race is, as I have already pointed out, 
very shadowy in Malabar. Considerable care had, there- 
fore, to be taken in accepting or rejecting some of those 
who, anxious to secure the modest fee which was offered in 
return for the loan of their bodies, appeared before me in 
the rOle of Eurasians. All doubtful cases were rejected, 
and due attention was paid to the various points — colour, 
character of nose, type of face, breadth of head, manner of 
speech, baldness and grey hairs at an early age, etc. — by 
which one accustomed to close observation of Natives and 
Eurasians can distinguish racial admixture. 

Though the terms are, according to my definition (page 
69) synonymous and interchangeable, a social distinction 
is made at Calicut between Eurasians and East Indians. 
W^ith a view to clearing up the grounds on which this dis- 
tinction is based, my interpreter was called on to submit a 
note on the subject, which eventually arrived, couched in 



97 

language worthy of '' Mark Twain. '^ I, therefore, repro- 
duce it in the original Anglo-Indian. 

'' Eurasians are classified to those who stand second in 
the list of Europeans and those born in any part of India, 
and who are the Pedigree of European descendants, beings 
born of father European and mother East Indian, and not- 
withstanding those who can prove themselves as really 
good Indian descendants such as mother and father of the 
same sex, therefore these are called Eurasians. 

" East Indians are those offsprings of Christians of the 
East, and they atimes gather the offsprings of Eurasians 
to the entering their marriage to the East Indian females 
into the East Indian community, thereby they are called 
East Indians. 

" Native Christians are those of Hindu nations con- 
verted into Christians by their embracing the poles of 
Christianity. All Hindus thereby converted and made 
Christians by a second Baptism are called Native Christians. 

" Coaster, — They are alluded to those who belong to 
the Coast, and who come from a country that has a Sea Coast 
into that country that has not got a Sea Coast is therefore 
called a Coaster, A very rude word.'^ 

The distinction between Eurasian and East Indian is, as 
a matter of fact, a very artificial one, and the two types 
merge imperceptibly one into the other, separated by no 
sharp line of demarcation. Speaking in general terms, it 
may be said that the Eurasians are of greater stature, and 
possess skins of lighter hue than the East Indians, who, as 
the result of intermarriage with Native Christian women, 
have reverted in the direction of the Native type. 

There are, in North Malabar, many individuals posing 
as pure-bred Natives, whose fathers were Europeans ; but, 
for caste reasons, their white paternity is lost sight of. 
Many of them possess very pale skins, and some are in 
prosperous circumstances. Writing concerning the Tiyan 
community, Mr. Logan says : ^^ " The women are not as a 
rule excommunicated if they live with Europeans, and the 
consequence is that there has been among them a largo 
admixture of European blood, and the caste itself has been 
materially raised in the social scale. In appearance some 
of the women are almost as fair as Europeans. ^^ In recent 
times the Tiyans of North Malabar have separated into two 

^^ ' Manual of Malabar *, 



98 



factions, which hold different views with reference to the 
cohabitation of Tiyan women with Europeans, the one being- 
in favour of it, the other ao^ainst it. On this point the 
report of the Malabar Marriage Commission, 1894, states 
*'that in the early days of British rule, the Tiyan women 
incurred no social disgrace by consorting with Europeans, 
and. up to the last generation, if the Sudra girl could boast 
of her Brahmin lover, the Tiyan girl could show more sub- 
stantial benefits from her alliance with a white man of the 
ruling race. Happily the progress of education, and the 
growth of a wholesome public opinion, have made shameful 
the position of a European's concubine ; and both races have 
thus been saved from a mode of life equally demoralizing to 
each.^' 

The Eurasians examined by me at Calicut, nearly all of 
whom were Eoman Catholics, were earning a modest liveli- 
hood, ranging from Rs. 35 to lis. 12 per mensem, in the 
following capacities : — 



Bandsman. 

Boot-maker. 

Bugler. 

Carpenter. 

Clerk. 

Coffee-estate writer. 

Compositor. 

Copyist. 

Mechanic. 



Municipal inspector. 
Musician. 
Petition -wri^p^. 
Police constable. 
Railway guard. 
Schoolmaster. 
Tailor. 
Tin-smith. 
Weaver. 



No less than 39, out of the 96 cases which came before 
m.e for investigation, were tailors. Tailoring is, therefore, 
to the poor Eurasians of Calicut what " fitting ^^ is to those 
of Madras. 

As in Madras, so in Malabar, tattooing is very preva- 
lent among the male members of the Eurasian community, 
and the devices are characterised by a predominance of 
religious emblems and snakes. The following patterns are 
recorded in my notes : — 



Bangle on wrist. 

Boat. 

Bird (the Holy Ghost). 

Chalice. 

Christ crucified. 

Cobra. 

Conventional and geomet- 
rical designs (done by 
Koravar women). 



Cross. 

Cross and crown. 

Cross and heart. 

Cross and I.N. R.I. 

Crossed swords. 

Fish. 

Flags. 

Flower. 

Flower with leaves. 



Initials. Snake coiling round forearm. 

Ladder. Solomon's seal. 

Sacred heart. ISteam boat. ' 
Snake encircling forearm. 

During tlie course of my visit to Calicut, a resident 
correspondent of the ^ Madras Mail '' expressed Lis fear 
that, when I came to strike my averages of Calicut '' East 
Indians/' I should find the results very poor, as I had 
measured specimens drawn from the lower section of the 
community, represented by artisaus living on poor food, 
and amidst surroundings that are not conducive to physical 
development. This fear was indeed justified, and my 
remarks on early marriage and physique of the poor Eura- 
sians of Madras apply with equal, if not greater force to 
those of Malabar. Kepetition is unnecessary, and it will 
sufiice to let the figures in table xxv speak for themselves. 

Comparing the physique of the younger members of the 
Calicut " Eurasian and East Indian '^ community at an age 
when they would be eligible as recruits, with that of the 
Eurasians of Madras and sepoys of the same age, the 
results work out as follows, and demonstrate that a very- 
small proportion of the two former possess the physique 
necessary to successfully withstand the hardships enforced 
by active service : — 

WEIGHT, LB. 





70- 
80 


80- 
90 


90- 
100 


100- 
110 


110- 
120 


120- ISO- 
ISO 140 


140- 
150 


150- 
160 


Sepoys 


... 


6 


1 
9 


4 
12 


11 
13 


19 
4 
3 


9 
5 

1 


4 
1 


2 


Eurasians J Madras 


„ Calient 


3 


3 


9 


15 


16 



CHEST, CM. 





60-70 


70-80 


80-90 


90-100 


Sepoys 


3 


5 


42 


3 


Eurasians, Madras 


33 


14 


... 


„ Calicut 


1 


39 


10 





100 

SHOULDERS, CM. 





33- 

37 


37- 
38 


38- 
39 


39- 
40 


40- 
41 


41- 
42 


42- 
43 


43- 

44 


44- 

45 


45- 
46 


Sepoys 


9 
12 


10 
8 


4 
8 
8 


5 

9 

17 


6 

10 

5 


15 
2 


12 


4 
2 


2 


2 


Eurasians, Madras 


Calicut .. 



Putting these figures, as before, in terms of percentages 



we obtain the following results : — 







Weight. 


Below 

120 LB. 


Above 

120 LB. 


Sepoys 
Eurasians, 


• • • • 

Madras 


.. 


32 

80 


68 
20 


f* 


Calicut 


.. 


92 


8 






Cff.st. 


Below 
80 CM. 


Above 
80 CM. 


Sepoys 
Eurasians, 


Madras 


.. 


10 
72 


90 
28 


Calicut 




• • 


80 


20 






Shoulders. 


Below 

41 CM. 


Above 

41 CM. 


Sepoys 
Eurasians, 


Madras 


.. 


30 
92 


70 
8 




Calicut 


, , . , 


100 






During a recent visit to Ootacamund, I was, through the 
courtesy of the Principal, the Pev. A. W. Atkinson, en- 
abled to examine the physique of the elder boys at the 
Lawrence Asylum, the object of which is " to provide for 
children of European and East Indian (i.e.. Eurasian) offi- 
cers and soldiers of Her Majesty's Army (British and 
Native), and of Europeans and East Indians in the Medical 
Service, Military and (;ivil, who are serving, or have served 
within the limits of the Presidency of Madras, a refuge from 
the debilitating effects of a tropical climate, and from the 
serious drawbacks to the well-being of children incidental 
to a barrack life ; to afford for them a plain, practical, and 
religious education ; and to train them for employment in 
different trades, pursuits, and industries.'^ In his last two 
annual reports the Principal has emphasised the fact that 
application for the admission of the children of British 



101 

soldiers, for whom solely this and similar institutions were 
originally founded, have almost ceased. *' There is/^ he 
says (6th September, 1897), "not one child of a British 
soldier eligible for admission on the register to-day-a situ- 
ation unprecedented in the history of the Asylum. In view- 
then of this lapse of applications for the admission of the 
kind of children into our Asylum, for whom it primarily 
exists, ought not the plan to be adopted, as speedily as may 
be, of drafting such children from Orphanages, and such 
like Institutions on the enervating plains, and placing them 
with us here ? " In the year 1896-97 four boys enlisted in 
European regiments, and one boy in a Native regiment. 
" Compared with the previous year, '' the Principal reports, 
'^ enlistments in European regiments were few, as boys of 
j^ure European parentage only can be entertained." 

As the result of examination of 32 Eurasian boys at the 
Lawrence Asylum, between the ages of 13 and 17, whose 
measurements are given in detail in table xxvi, I am able 
to testify with very great pleasure to the excellence of their 
physical condition. A good climate, with a mean annual 
temperature of 58°, good food, and physical training, have 
produced, in fact, a set of boys well-nourished and muscu- 
lar, with good chests, shoulders, and body weight, who 
afford a striking contrast to the lads belonging to the same 
class in the plains, brought up amid the unwholesome 
environment of an enervating climate. More eloquent than 
the columns of figures in table xxvi, which appeal only to 
those accustomed to anthropometric methods, was exami- 
nation of the lads themselves as they stood stripped for in- 
vestigation. But I may, for the purpose of comparison, 
cite the physical records of a few cases, both pure European 
and Eurasian, in evidence that, amid wholesome surround- 
ings, the Eurasian (especially of British paternity) is 
capable of development into a being of good physique, such 
as is required for the hardships of Military Service : 

Shoul- 
ders. 
35-5 
34-7 
36-3 
36-6 
35;J 
39-7 
36-3 
35-2 
371 





Age. 


Weight. 


Height. 


Chest. 


European 


. 16-17 


135 


169-8 


84 


5 J 


. 15-16 


110 


161-8 


79-5 


, ) 


. 15-16 


100 


153-4 


81 


1 J 


. 14-15 


135 


167-6 


84 


Eurasian 


. 16-17 


105 


157-4 


81 


, , 


. 16-17 


116 


162-6 


83 


}) 


. 15-16 


102 


149-5 


80 


) > 


.. 14-15 


108 


153-6 


80 


» 


.. 13-14 


115 


167 


79-6 



102 



TABLE XVII. 

SUMMARY OF MEASUREMENTS. 
EURASIANS. 





Max. 


Min. 


Average. 


Range. 


Weight 


168 


79 


111-5 


89 


Height 


183-8 


153 


166-6 


30-8 


Height, sitting 


95-6 


78-6 


86-6 


17 


Height, kneeling 


136-6 


113 


123-7 


23'6 


Height to gladiolus 


136-4 


110 


122-7 
172-7 


26-4 
43-4 


Span of arm8 


196-8 


153-4 


Chest 


93 


67 


791 
12-5 


26 


Middle finger to patella ... 


20-4 


6-2 


14-2 


Shoulders ... ... 


44-6 


34-3 


. 39-2 


10-3 


Cubit 


52-9 


40-3 


46-1 


12-6 


Hand, length ... 


20-2 


15-5 


17-7 


4-7 


Hand, breadth 


8-7 


6-5 


7-5 


2-2 


Hipa 


30-3 


21-4 


25-4 


8-9 


Foot, length 


29-5 


22-4 


25-7 


7-1 


Foot, breadtb 


10 


7-1 


8-3 


2-9 


Cephalic length 


20-2 


168 


18-6 


3-4 


Cephalic breadth. 


15-6 


12-8 


14-1 


2-8 


Cephalic index 


87-2 


69-5 


76 


17-7 


Bigoniao 


12 


9 


101 


3 


Bizygomatio 


14-4 


irs 


13 


2-6 


Maxillo-zygomatic index 


85-3 


69-9 


77-5 


15-4 


Nasal height ... 


6-1 


4-4 


5-1 
3-5 


1-7 
1-5- 


Nasal breadth 


4-2 


2-7 


Nasal index ,„ 


91-1 


53-7 


69-5 


37-4 



Note. — The results are based on the measurement of 130 subjects. 
In this and the following tables, the weight is recorded in pounds j the 
measurements are in centimetres. 



103 



TABLE XVIII. 

EURASIANS AND SEPOYS. 

AVERAGES. 





Eurasians. 


Sepoys. 


Age 


28-29 


24-25 


Weight 


111-5 lbs. 


127-5 lbs. 


Height 


166-6 cm. 


168-2 cm. 


Chest 


79-1 cm. 


84-7 cm. 


Shoulders 


39-2 cm. 


41*5 cm. 


Dynamometer 


65 lbs. 


80 lbs. 



104 



pq w 



M 






d 


Li 

c2 


s 


r-t 


-* 

t— 


00 


CD 


t 


3 
1 


05 


^ 


CO 

CO 


1 


1 ^ 

u d 
d oj 

«1 






g 








i-H 


r-( 

rH 


CO 
00 


00 


CO 


6 
to 

<1 


si 




00 

i-t 


1> 




^ 


o 




Oi 

CO 
rH 


00 


2 S 


B 


1 cs 


I— 1 


g 


« 

", 


g 


00 

ID 


CD 

1— 1 




05 


CO 
CO 


d 


u d 

d <A 


o 


1— t 
00 


W5 


05 

3 » 


a 

m 


8 

rH 


00 
r-t 


s 




CO 
1— ( 
I— 1 


- 


-V3 

1 


rd 
'© 

trj 


^ i 

-d 
O 


1 


1 

I 

d 



105 



TABLE XX. 

DETAILS OF MEASUREMENTS. 
EURASIANS, AGED 19—25. 





"S 


bo 
•53 

m 


1 


o © 


o ^• 

II 

Q 




24 


112 


167-4 


85 


40-4 


... 


Fitter. 


22 


105 


160-4 


83 


40 




Fitter. 


24 


97 


153-8 


78 


37-5 




Boiler-smitli. 


21 


127 


180 


86-5 


41-5 




Blacksmith. 


21 


139 


164-8 


87 


42-1 


... 


Ticket-collector. 


22 


135 


181 


82 


40-9 




Clerk. 


23 


116 


169-6 


78-7 


38-6 




Electric tram driver. 


21 


119 


179 


79-7 


38-7 




Fitter. 


24 


110 


162 


78 


39-4 


... 


Clerk. 


23 


108 


170 


76 


39-4 


... 


Carpenter. 


23 


94 


154-6 


74-5 


36-3 




Unemployed. 


23 


90 


156-8 


72-5 


37-2 


... 


Carpenter. 


23 


150 


180-6 


87-5 


43-9 




Electric tram driver. 


24 


103 


167 


75-5 


38-6 




Compositor. 


21 


107 


167-2 


77 


37-2 




Hammerer. 


22 


111 


170-6 


75 


37-3 




Turner. 


21 


95 


160-8 


75-5 


36-7 


... 


Mechanic. 


23 


111 


166-8 


77 


39-5 


... 


Fitter. 


21 


115 


168-4 


83-5 


40 


... 


Fireman. 


23 


123 


162-2 


82 


40-9 


... 


Fitter. 


24 


106 


166-8 


75-5 


40-2 




Fitter. 


24 


116 


171 


75 


38-2 


... 


Fitter. 


22 


127 


169-2 


81 


40 


... 


Fireman. 


23 


109 


165-4 


77-5 


38-5 


... 


Turner. 


24 


115 


179-4 


82-5 


41-2 


... 


Fitter. 



106 



TABLE XK^continued. 



DETAILS OF MEASURKMENTS. 
EURASIANS, AGED 19—25. 



Age. 
Weight. 




o 


go 
CO 


1^ 




24 


83 


154-7 


72 


36-5 


... 


Chemist's assistant. 


22 


132 


171-2 


87 


40-1 


90 


Turner. 


22 


101 


165-8 


74-5 


39-1 


70 


Clerk. 


22 


123 


160-2 


82 


40-7 


71 


Rivetter. 


21 


103 


169-2 


76-5 


39-1 


68 


Jointer. 


21 


137 


175-2 


80 


39-9 


60 


Fitter. 


21 


92 


154-5 


73 


33-8 


50 


Fitter. 


24 


101 


166 


79 


37-6 


69 


Railway guard. 


19 


106 


160 


78 


38-5 


67 


Turner. 


20 


96 


163-8 


72 


38-5 


56 


Cleaner, railway. 


20 


113 


167-2 


76-5 


39-6 


74 


Carpenter. 


23 


136 


171-4 


84-5 


43-3 


90 


Cobler. 


20 


87 


159-6 


76-5 


37-7 


57 


Fitter. 


24 


80 


154-4 


68 


351 


56 


Clerk. 


20 


102 


163-8 


75-5 


38-7 


55 


Fitter. 


22 


88 


158-8 


75-5 


36-4 


62 


Printer. 


23 


94 


155-8 


75-5 


37-6 


64 


Printer. 


19 


100 


161-4 


74 


37-5 


63 


Fitter. 


24 


118 


169 


79 


39-5 


QQ 


Fitter. 


L9 


93 


162-6 


72 


35-6 


50 


Fitter. 


19 


95 


159-6 


72-5 


371 


60 


Fitter. 


19 


80 


157-8 


69-5 


35-9 


54 


Fitter. 


19 


111 


161-4 


74 


37 


65 


Watch-repairer. 


20 


118 


167 


79 


39-7 


QQ 


Fitter. 


19 


82 


157 


69 


34-8 


46 


Blacksmith. 



107 



TABLE XXI. 

DETAILS OF MEASUREMENTS. 
SEPOYS, AGED 18—25. 



Age. 


Weight. 


Height. 


Chest. 


Shoulders. 


Dynamo- 
meter. 


23 


131 


174 


87 


45-3 


78 


2J. 


143 


170-4 


91-5 


42-8 


113 


20 


133 


169-2 


85 


42-3 


81 


19 


126 


161-8 


80-5 


39 


71 


20 


118 


160-6 


82 


41-2 


85 


19 


115 


167-1 


80 


40-7 


89 


22 


131 


168-6 


82 


43-7 


81 


22 


125 


167-6 


82 


41-8 


86 


19 


128 


167-4 


85 


41-7 


78 


24 


122 


168-3 


84-3 


42 


69 


21 


148 


171-8 


89-5 


42-4 


81 


21 


125 


165-6 


84 


42-4 


79 


18 


137 


174 


88 


43-7 


83 


19 


123 


173-2 


80-5 


41-4 


73 


23 


160 


175-9 


94 


41-3 


78 


23 


157 


178 


90 


43-7 


88 


20 


131 


175-2 


84 


42-7 


84 


23 


128 


J 63 


85-5 


41-3 


92 


22 


139 


172-4 


89-5 


43-4 


81 


19 


124 


172 


80-5 


38-2 


80 


22 


113 


161 


83 


40-2 


76 


22 


129 


161-8 


84-5 


41-8 


66 


21 


141 


172-6 


88 


45-5 


97 


19 


108 


162 


81 


39-5 


93 


20 


123 


166 


83 


40-2 


80 



108 

TABLE XXl—continued. 

DETAILS OF MEASUREMENTS. 
SEPOYS, AGED 18—25. 



Age. 


Weight. 


Height. 


Chest. 


Shoulders. 


Dynamo- 
meter. 


21 


98 


166 


76 


39-6 


67 


22 


127 


169 


82 


391 


86 


20 


116 


163-2 


80 


41-1 


69 


20 


129 


166-9 


89 


42-4 


77 


20 


145 


177-8 


86-5 


42-3 


75 


18 


107 


166-8 


79-5 


38-2 


66 


22 


109 


160-7 


80-5 


38-7 


84 


21 


111 


161-3 


79-5 


40-1 


75 


24 


112 


165 


80-5 


39 


82 


21 


118 


162 


83 


40-7 


71 


19 
18 


114 


170-8 


81-5 


41-6 


73 


122 


161-2 


86 


42-2 


78 


18 


120 


163-2 


83-5 


41-8 


72 


21 


127 


167 


86 


41-8 


77 


22 


116 


170-4 


83 


42 


82 


20 


134 


173-2 


98 


42 


86 


18 


113 


163-6 


79 


41-6 


76 


18 


121 


167-4 


82-5 


41-5 


77 


22 


100 


165-4 


75-5 


37-7 


75 


23 


135 


169-4 


85 


41-9 


85 


23 


128 


170 


88 


44 


75 


24 


122 


164-6 


85-5 


42-9 


70 


19 


128 


170-2 


86 


40-8 


86 


22 


114 


169-2 


83 


41-7 


73 


22 


130 


172 


88 


44-8 


102 



109 



1^ 
c 

< 

c 

K 
P5 

. M 







=■§ 


^ 








CO 




CO 










Oi 








C5 




a 




OS 




-t3 


. CO 


J> 


: 


• 




l> 


: 


: o* 


: 


I— 1 




ft 


. 00 


(M 








o 




TJ< 




■^ 


o 




fK ?1 


1—1 








CO 




1— 1 




(—1 


4 


Q 




(M 


N 


CO 




CO 










<ji 


Oi 


o:^ 




05 










e8 


S '■ 


: 

• 


(M 


m 


CO 


: 


^ 


: : 


: 


: 


ft 


ft 


>^ 




CO 
rH 


CO 


I— 1 

1— 1 




CO 

I— ( 








a 


fi ^ 


05 


rH 


^_, 


(M 


<M 


CO 


-* to 


x>. 


j>. 






X 


00 


Oi 


OS 


Ci 


05 


as 


OS OS 


OS 


OS 






^^ 


a 


(M 


<M 


CO 


CO 


CO 


O CO 


CO 


o 


















r-t 




rH 




CO 


CO 


(M 


^ 


i> 


'rp 


OS 


(N 00 


rf( 


O 




>:-^ 




»-l 


(M 


1— 1 


1— 1 




r-> (M 


(N 


IM 




'^ 
^ 

o 


o 


6 


d 


d 


d 


d 


1 g 

g g 


d 


d 


o 


!> 




ft 


ft 


ft 


ft 


ft 




ft 


ft 




Id 
















bo 






: 


: 


^ 


'- 


^ 


'' '' 


''■ 


: 


fl 






03 
















f3 ■ 


CO 


•02 


-=5 




OB 


^ 


m 


m m 


CM 




^- 




;h 












u ^ 


u 


ce 


rf 




01 


ce 




c^ 


OS c3 


OJ 


o 


© 


® 




(» 


01 


o 


0) 


<X> (D 


© 


a 




o 








S 

CO 






CO 




I— 1 


1— 1 






.^ 




l—i 


rH 1—! 




p^ 


.2 

GO 


OS 


o 

¥ 


^ 
k 


B 
S 

01 




O (K 

II 


SO 
u 


pi 




-Ti 


H 


pq 


{z; 


m 


0-> 


m H 


o 


pq 




•d 






: 


i 






: 


:■ 


: 


1 

.e8 


O 












% 


o : 






a. 


^ 
^ 






§5 




o 


o 

-M 


^ 


'o 
m 


C 


p:i 


J5 






§ 


o 
o 


o 

o 


02 <i 


'S 

r/2 


d 


fl 


: 


a 


'- 


: 


: 


i 


rt 








S 




cS 










c) 






e& 


<D 




o 








A 


ffi 






P4 




.2 


o 


o 

ft 


o 

ft 


o 
ft 


o 

a 

fa 




o 
ft 


o 
ft 


d 


' 


i 


^ 


: 






• 


^ ^ 


^ 


^ 


bo 






















<; 


CO 


to 


CO 


<M 


-^ 


i> 


rH 


(M O 


i> 


(M 




1 


^ 


(M 


(M 


(M 


CO 


CM 


CO 


Tj( (N 


(M 


CO 



no 



w 

Q 

Q 

P=." 
H 
-tl 

P^ 
H 

l>H 
CQ 

o 

p^ 

o 

xn 

OQ 
<1 
O 

o 

p^ 

P3 

W 
H 

O 
12; 

o 
w 

OQ 

BQ 
O 

M 

6Q 
M 

OS 



'S 

1 

p^ 


•u3apiiqo 


i ; ; ? : : -^ i : i 


•nauio^ 


: : : : : co os x> o lo 


•n^H 


(N i-l 1-1 (N (N 


1 


•aajpirao 


: : : : : : ; rn ; -. 


•uaniOj^ 


: : : : : cq i-h ; ih ih 


•uapi 


: : : (M rH ^ tp : • : w 


5 


•ug.tpnqo 


: : : : : ©q <m <n ; i-r 


•uaino^ 


: : : : : cc co i« x> co 


•n8K 


1-1 : : : : w o 05 « cq 


3 


•ua^PUMO 


: : : : : cq co co ; ih 


•uauioAV 


: • : : i ■* -^ <m co os 

. . - T— 1 r-t 1— t rH 


•U8H 


<M cq N CO (M 


1 
'a 
5 


•uajpiiT^O 


: : ; : : (M co <n : rH 


•uaino^ 


: : : : : co 00 co co ■* 


•U8K 


rHtHiH :<M l>l>00cr)O 
• I—I 




•uajpnqo 


: : : : : : : rn : : 


•nanio^ 


: : : : : rH co os j> 10 


•U9H 


rHrHNCOiH (MOt^COO 
<M (N iH iH N 




Europeans. 

1893 

1894 

1895 

1896 

1897 

Eurasians. 

1893 

1894 

1895 

1896 

1897 



Ill 



CiC 

s 
"2 

1 


•uetno^ 


« 


eo 


CO 


g 


n s 




5S s 


s ^ 


i> 


l> o 


«o 


•n8M 


l§ 


SJ 


i 


§^ 


^ 


i 


^ 




si s 


;? 


*i 


S 


■<* 


i 


'u^moj^ 


-^ 


IH 


CO 


rH 




>* 


2h 


O 35 

"1 


^ : 






. 


•U8H 


(M 


^ 


CO 


; 


rH 


^ 


^5! 


l>^ 


S3 


^ 


- 




rH 


1^ 


: 


,=5 

5 


'uanio^ 


lO 


>c 


CO 


''J' 


- 


cjs 


s 


S 


eo 


<s> 


oq 


rH 


. 


^ 


T^ 


•n8H 


<M 


CO 


-? 


»o 




»o 


n 




s 


:S 


. 


3 


CO 


J2 


-i 


•aanio^ 


CO 


S 


ec 


eo 


I? 


g 


8 


§ 


oc 


s 


o 


00 


" 


^ 


i> 


•U9I^ 


fe 


^ 


^ 


^ 


? 




s 

•? 






1 




. 


1 


§J 


'6 
"S 

1 


•Ttaraoji^^ 


t» 


« 


«0 


■<* 


CO 




00 
(M 


00 

rH 


l-H 


00 

rH 


^ 


r-i 


■* 




^ 


•U8H 


«C 


» 


o 


(N 


CO 


O 

s 


1 


eo 


S 


t 


S 


S = 


lO 


rH 


2 


•uauio^^ 


§ 


« 


CO 


CO 


i 


1>- 


CO c- 


5 s 


eo 


l> i> 


. 


«D 


•U9W 


s 


CO 
so 


s; 


i 


5 


i 


^ 


-* 
S 


§ S:; 


(N 


CO 


■* 


rH 


eo 




1 


5^ 


'■■ 


^ 


CO 


: 

1 


CO : 

w ■ 

H 
<< : 


•^ 

1 


>o 

1 


: 


: 


S5 : 
■< ■ 

o . 

M : 


: 


«5 

1 


00 


: 



112 



TABLE XXV. 



COMPARISON OF MEASUREMENTS. 
EURASIANS, MADRAS AND CALICUT. 





Madras. Calicut. 


Weight 


111-5 


109 


Height 


166-6 


163-5 


Span of arms 


172-7 


171 


Chest 


79-1 


77-7 


Shoulders 


39-2 


38-7 


Hand, breadth 


7-5 


7-4 


Hips 


25-4 


25-1 


Foot, breadth 


8-3 


8-3 


Cephaliclength 


18-6 


18-6 


„ breadth 


14-1 


14 


index 


76 


75-4 


Bigoniao 


10-1 


9-9 


Bizygomatic 


13 


12-8 


Maxillo- zygomatic index 


77-5 


77-5 


Nasal height 


5-1 


4-9 


,, breadth 


3-5 


3-4 


„ index 


69-5 


69-3 


Dynamometer 


65 


63 



The weights were taken in clothes with boots. 



113 
TABLE XXVI. 

SUMMAEY OF MEASUREMENTS. 
EURASIAN BOYS, LAWRENCE ASYLUM. 





.1 

a- 




1 


i 

o 
m 


d 

PI 


i 


'a 

s 

O 
O 


o 


a 

o 

p 


16-17 


105 


157-4 


81 


35-3 


7-4 


18-9 


14-2 


751 


50 


16-17 


116 


162-6 


83 


39-7 


7-5 


18-2 


13-4 


73-6 


59 


16-17 


85 


145-2 


67 


33 


7-2 


18-9 


14-2 


75-1 


43 


15-16 


118 


165-6 


79-5 


37-4 


7-3 


17-4 


15 


86-2 


64 


15-16 


96 


155-4 


74 


33-4 


6-8 


18 


14-8 


82-2 


49 


15-16 


97 


153-2 


73 


35 


7-3 


17-5 


14-8 


84-6 


50 
51 


15-16 


102 


149-5 


80 


36-3 


7-1 


17-8 


14-6 


82 


15-16 


91 


149-4 


73 
76 


35-4 
36 


6-8 


17-8 


14-6 


82 


42 


15-16 


104 


152-6 


7-4 


18-4 


13-6 


73-9 


63 


15-16 


87 


152-4 


71-5 


35-4 


7-1 


18-1 


14-2 


78-5 


49 


15-16 


97 


153-6 


73-5 


35-3 


7-2 


17-1 


14-4 


84-2 


55 


15-16 


86 


148-7 


70-5 


32-3 


7-4 


17-6 


13-5 


76-4 


60 


15-16 


85 


150-2 


73-5 


32-3 


6-9 


17-8 


13-6 


76-4 


47 


15-16 


90 


151-2 


73-5 


32-9 


6-4 


16-6 


14-4 


86-7 


41 


15-16 


92 


151 


70 


34-7 


7-3 


16-9 


13-6 


80-5 


55 


15-16 


92 


144-8 


73 


33-5 


69 


18 


13-4 


74-4 


44 


15-16 


97 


149-8 


72-5 
77-5 


341 


7 


19-5 


15-2 


76-4 


48 


15-16 


98 


150-4 


35-3 


7-2 


17-2 


13-6 


79-1 


51 


15-16 


80 


140-6 


69 30-5 


6-7 


17-4 


13-9 


79-9 


39 


15-16 


85 


148-9 


67-5 33 


6-5 


17-8 


14-2 


79-8 


38 



114 
TABLE XXYl— continued, 

SUMMARY OF MEASUREMENTS. 
EURASIAN BOYS, LAWRENCE ASYLUM. 



1 


-4^ 


4^ 


•+3 
o 


s ■ 

p 
o 


d 

2 
m 


a 

-a 

o 


-5 
1 


o 

1 

o 
O 


-t-> 

a 
1 

i 

Q 


14-15 


.108 


153-6 


80 


35-2 


7-6 


16-8 


14-2 


85-7 


67 


14-15 


93 


147-7 


76 


34-5 


7-7 


17-6 


14 


79-5 


50 


14-15 


85 


145-6 


68-7 


32 


6-5 


18-6 


14 


75-3 


38 


14-15 
14-15 


87 


150-2 


71-5 


31-6 


6-6 


17-8 


13-8 


77-5 


52 


88 


148-2 


69-5 


31-5 


6-8 


17-6 


14 


79-5 


52 


14-15 


97 


148-7 


75 


33-2 


7-3 


18 


13-8 


76-7 


59 


14-15 


92 


148-2 


75-3 


34-6 


6-5 


18-2 


14-7 


80-8 


48 


14-15 


89 


146-5 


71-5 


33-9 


7 


18-8 


13-8 


73-4 


47 


14-15 


77 


147-6 


68 


32-8 


6-3 


18-2 


14-2 


78 


39 


14-15 


86 


143-2 


72-5 


32-9 


6-8 


18-5 


14-2 


76-8 


42 


14-15 


87 


146-6 


69-5 


33-3 


71 


18 


14-2 


78-9 


50 


13-14 


115 


167 


79-6 


37-1 


7-2 


18-2 


15-8 


86-8 


57 



115 



KOTE ON TATTOOING. 



In a paper on tattooing-, read at tlie Anthropological 
Institute in January, 1888, Miss Buckland refers to the 
practice of tattooing among tlie Nagas of Assam, and to fhe 
tattooing of breeches, reaching from the waist to the" knee, 
with which the male Eurman is adorned. But, in the map 
illustrating the paper, peninsular India, south of 20°, is 
left a perfect and absolute blank. And, in the discussion 
which followed the reading of the paper, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Kincaird, recognising this remarkable hiatus, remarked 
that " his observation led him to believe that this custom 
is wide-spread on the arms and legs among the women of 
the lower castes of the Tamil, etc., races in the south and 
south-east of the peninsula. Among the ethnically allied 
so-called aboriginal tribes inhabiting the Vindjan and 
Sathpura hill slopes it is also prevalent, even among the 
w^omen of the lower orders of Muhammadans, whose fore- 
fathers were probablj low-caste Hindus, before being 
converted bj force. He had observed the same tattoo 
markings on arms and legs. There is ygtj generally a 
dot on the chin, and similar dots on the cheek or temple 
very sparingly placed, forming perhaps, in their ideas, 
beauty spots similar to the patches of our ladies in former 
years. ^^ 

The prevalence of tattooing, frequently with very elabo- 
rate devices, among the male sex in the Eurasian community 
has been dealt with in the preceding chapter. And, in 
Bulletin No. IV, 1896, I have referred to, and illustrated 
the primitive patterns of dots and circles on the breasts, 
arms, hands, legs, and feet of the Toda women of the 
Nilgiris, and the more advanced type of lines, dots, and 
circles, sometimes combined into a simple ornamental 
pattern, in vogue among the Kota women of the same 
hill-range. 

The following note on the practice of tattooing, as 
carried out in the city of Madras, is based on information 
extracted in the course of interviews with professional female 
tattooers, of whom the first arrived in a state of maudling 



116 

intoxication. These women belong to the class of Koravas 
or YerukalaSj " a vagrant tribe found throughout the Madras 
Presidency. They wander about the country in gangs, 
selling baskets, carrying salt, telling fortunes, and pilfering 
and robbing whenever an opportunity occurs. As house- 
breakers they are especially expert, and burglary is their 
favourite crime. ^' (Census report, 1881.) The men are 
also employed in hunting, bird-snaring, and as actors of 
native plays, which they perform on the road side. 
Sometimes they masquerade as mendicants, and go about, 
beating a drum, and begging from house to house in the 
bazar. The female tattooers leave Madras during tha 
harvest season, and pay professional visits to the neighbour- 
ing districts, travelling as far as Pondicherry in the south, 
and Cuddapah in the north. By these women Brahmans, 
^ Sudras ^ of all classes, Pariahs, and Tamil-speaking 
Muhammadans (Labbais) are operated on. The patterns 
range from a dot or straight line to complex geometrical 
or conventional designs (Plates xxiii-xxiv). Figures of 
wild animals are not met with, but scorpions, birds, fishes, 
flowers, and the Yaishnava sect mark, are common. So too, 
as among the Eurasians, are the initials or name (in Tamil 
characters) upon the fore-arm. Sometimes Hindu males 
are tattooed, as an amusement, v^hen boys, or, in some 
cases among the lower classes, e.g.^ Pariahs, when grown, 
up. But tattooing with elaborate devices is essentially 
confined to the female sex. The parts of the body selected 
for the performance of the operation in its ornamental 
aspect are the fore-arm, fore-leg, fore-head, cheeks, and 
chin. But, in some instances, in case of muscular pain or 
other disorder, the operation is performed as a remedial 
agent over the shoulder- joint, or on the thigh, upper arm, 
or other parts of the body. A. legend runs to the effect that, 
many years ago, a Pariah woman wished her upper arms 
and breast to be tattooed in the form of a bodice. The- 
operation was successfully performed until the region of tha 
heart was reached, and then a vulnerable part was punc- 
tured by the needles with the result that the woman died. 
Whence has arisen a superstitious objection to tattooing of 
the breasts. 

The Tamil equivalent of tattooing is pachai-kuthu- 
kirathu (== pricking with green). The " marking ink " is 
prepared in the following manner : Turmeric (kappa 
manja) powder and agathikeerai (leaves of Sesbaniui 



PL. XXIII. 




TAMIL TATTOOING. 



117 

grandiflorn) are rabbed together in a mortar, or on a grinding 
stone. The mixture is spread on a thin cloth, and rolled 
up in the form of a wick, which is placed in an open 
lamp charged with castor-oil. The wick is lighted, and 
the lamp covered with a new earthen pot, on the inside 
of which the lamp-black is deposited. This is scraped off 
and mixed with human milk or water. Instead of agathi- 
keerai, arumpilloo (green parts of Ci/nodon Dactyfon), or 
karisinagoni (green parts of Eclipta alhd) may be used in the 
preparation of the wick. As a pricking instrument, three 
or four sewing needles are fastened together with thread. 
In the performance of the operation, the selected pattern 
is first traced on the skin with a thin stick dipped in the 
prepared ink, which is pricked in with the needles. The 
part is then washed with cold water, and a coat of ink 
rubbed over tlie surface. To allay the pain, oil is applied, 
and a small quantity of turmeric powder is rubbed in, to 
brighten the colour and prevent swelling. The Korava 
women, being illiterate, are unable to tattoo initials or 
names unless they are first drawn for them. They are able 
to execute the complicated patterns, with which they are, 
from long practice, familiar, with considerable dexterity, 
and will tattoo any pattern which is new to them, provided 
that it is first drawn. The woman who described the 
tattooing process to me traced out very elaborate patterns, 
with great rapidity, with the blunt stick which she was 
accustomed to use, but could make no way at all with a 
pencil. The Burmese patterns are far more artistic, varied, 
and complicated than those executed by the Koravas. With 
these patterns sepoys, and Tamil coolies who emigrate to 
Burma, are freely tattooed by highly skilled Burmese tat- 
tooers ; and some of these patterns are now being copied by 
the Madras tattooers. The tattooer's fee is said to range 
from a quarter-anna for a dot or line to twelve-annas for a 
complex design. And in up-country villages payment 
appears to be made in kind, and a present of rice to be 
the usual remuneration. 

The following information was supplied by a Tamil 
Native, with a European ballet girl tattooed on his upper 
arm, who was engaged in varnishing cases in one of the 
Museum galleries : " Some years ago I went to Ceylon with 
a Native Theatrical Company. While in Colombo I made 
the acquaintance of a Sinhalese who was a professional 
tattooer. He had an album of pictures for tattooing. I 

Q 



118 



was attracted by their beauty, and subjected myself to 
the operation. It was an easy and painless operation as 
compared witb that of the Madras tattooer. The Sinhalese 
man had the needles tied together in different ways, e.if.^ 
for pricking straight lines five or six needles are tied 
together in a row ; for pricking curves the needles are 
arranged in a curve. The Madras tattooer has the needles 
tied together in a bundle, and the operation, as performed 
with them, is painful, and sometimes followed by swelling 
and ulceration." Asked whether he was glad he had been 
tattooed, the man said, " I am very sorry I had it done, 
for, when I got married, I was ashamed of it, and kept 
it hidden by my cloth." 



PL. XXIY 




TAMIL TATTOOING. 



119 



MALAGASI-NIAS-DRAVIDIANS. 



In the conrse of an article entitled ^ Malgaches-Nias- 
Dravidians/ * M. Zaborowski makes copious reference to 
the results of m^ researches among the Irulas, Paniyans, 
and Kurumbas.t Quoting Modigliani, he says : " I have 
seen in India, on the Malabar Coast, and especially at 
Beypur, Calicut, and the surrounding country, various 
natives of Malaisoid type, whose features struck me owing 
to their close resemblance to those of the Nias. Among 
the Tiyans, of low caste, this resemblance is great (twisted 
legs, lobes of the ears widely dilated, the shape of the 
female breasts, and long arms) ; but those, in whom the 
resemblance struck me most, were a Kakkai (crow-eating) 
Kurumba man and woman, mendicants met in the vicinity 
of Calicut. It was on my return from Nias, and the 
impression which they produced was a lively one. 
I do not wish to affirm that the Nias are descended from the 
Tiyans, or from the Kurumbas ; but, from the description 
of their physical characters, their customs, and their 
legends, results the possibility of a common origin between 
Nias and Kurumbas. 

Continuing the line of argument, M. Zaborowski writes 
as follows : " A very important work, which ' M. Edouard ' 
Thurston has just published, allows me to bring this 
assimilation still closer. The portraits of Irulas, Paniyans, 
Kurumbas, and a Tamil man, which this author gives with 
his notes, are sufficient by themselves to clear up many 
doubts. Mr. Thurston has measured only Dra vidians, so 
that he furnishes us with terms of comparison taken in 
India itself. A hierarchic classification of all these Indian 
people is made by the consideration of the nasal index 
alone. The Irulas, Paniyans, and Kurumbas are shown, by* 
the table of nasal indices, to be specially worthy of attention 
from the point of view which concerns us. Their extreme 
platyrhiny is due, as in the Mo is, to shortness of height 
rather than to excessive breadth.^^ 



* Bull. Soc. d' Anthropol., Fasc, 2, 1897. 
t Madras Museum Ball., Vol. II, No. 1, 1897. 



120 

After drawing attention to the profusion of copper rings, 
and other ornaments which the Irala and Paniyan women 
wear, and the resemblance between the clothing of Irulas 
and Malagasy of Madagascar, M. Zaborowski continues : 
*^ In studying the customs of our Indo-Chinese wild tribes, I 
have naturally been struck with the similarity of their taste 
for interminable rolls of copper, which they wear on the 
fore-arm, the profusion of bracelets, and especially with the 
habit of dilating the lobes of the ears, and suspending 
therein rings of copper, with the tastes and practices of the 
Dayaks of Borneo. Now I find the same tastes, and almost 
the same practices among the Dravidian tribes of Southern 
India. Irulas, Paniyans, and doubtless the Kurumbas, 
cover themselves with bracelets and rings of copper, and 
insert in the lobes of the ears light discs, rolls of cajan, 
doubtless to suspend therein ear-rings, and even rings of 
copper, which stretch them. This last custom is very wide- 
spread at Nias, and it is met with in Madagascar. Its point 
of departure, its origin, is then not in Borneo, but in Southern 
India. In addition to their striking physical characters, 
Irulas, Kurumbas, and Paniyans offer to the careful obser- 
ver peculiarities of customs which, if not absolutely identical 
with those of the Mois, recall no less forcibly their mode 
of existence, customs, level of culture, moral and social 
individuality. Close bonds have united them. I do not say 
that the Nias are Kurumbas, or that the Mois are Paniyans 
or Irulas. They are like so much debris of groups dis- 
aggregated long ago. They have lived, without communi- 
cating one with the other, for perhaps more than a thousand 
years. And it is undoubtedly more than two thousand 
years since they were separated, and became subject to the 
influences of difference in climate and environment. Their 
separation may even date back to a more remote period. It 
is, then, marvellous that they present to-day such evident 
affinities. Traits of custom and character may separate them 
even under the head of physique. Thus Irulas, Kurumbas, 
and Paniyans have, as a general rule, the skin of a darker 
hue than Nias and Mois, a greater hairy devolpment, and a 
m.ore Australian type. But the colour of the skin is uni- 
versally very variable ; light skins are met with even among 
Dravidians. And it must not be forgotten that Malay blood 
has, for a long time, had a very great influence in Indo- 
China. So that secondary distinctions cannot make us mis- 
interpret the identity of the primary characters which are 
preserved in all these groups with remarkable persistence. 



121 

It is from India that have proceeded the principal consti- 
tuent elements of the Nias and Moi's, not to speak of other 
less well-known groups of Sonda. 

As a supplement to my notes on the ornaments worn b^ 
Irulas and Panij^ans, and as bearing on the subject of dilata- 
tion of the ear-lobes referred to bj Mr. Zaborowski, I re- 
produce mj notes on the ornaments worn by Cherumans of 
both sexes at Calicut on the Malabar Coast, The Cherumans 
are, as I have pointed out elsewhere, a large community of 
low stature, very dark skinned, with wide nasaL index, 
inhabiting Malabar, where they were formerly agrestic 
slaves, and now work for the most part as field labourers, 
and, in the town of Calicut, as grass cutters, &c. With a 
view to rising in the social scale, many Cherumans are con- 
verted to Muhammadanism, and throw in their lot with the 
Moplahs or Mapillas. 

Man, set. 30. One steel, two brass ear-rings right ear; 
two brass rings left ear. 

Boy, iet. 14-15. Brass ring in each ear. 

Man, set. 30. Three brass rings in each ear; two steel 
rings and one brass ring left middle finger. 

Man, eet. 25. Two brass rings left ear ; one brass ring 
right ear. Three brass rings, and one iron ring right ring 
finger. 

Man, ast. 28. Two brass rings in each ear. One brass, 
one copper, and five iron rings right little finger. One 
brass ring with glass ornament left little finger. 

Woman, aet. 25. Lobes of both ears widely dilated by 
rolled leaden ornaments. Brass, and two glass bead neck- 
lets. String necklet with flat brass ornaments, the size of 
a Venetian sequin, with device as in old Travancore gold 
coins, with two brass cylinders pendent behind, and tassels 
of red cotton. 

Three brass rings on right little finger ; two brass rings 
on left ring finger. One brass, and two steel bangles on 
left wrist. 

W^oman, set. 25. Several bead necklets, and a single 
necklet of many rows of beads. Brass necklet like pre- 
ceding, with steel prong and scoop, for removing wax from 
the ears and picking teeth, tied to one of the necklets. At- 
tached to, and pendent from one necklet, three cajan rolls 
with symbols and Malay alam inscription to act as a charm 
to drive away devils. 



122 

Three ornamental brass bangles on right fore-arm ; two 
on left fore-arm. Iron bangle on left wrist. Thin brass 
ring in helix of each ear. Mass (seventy) of thin brass 
rings (alondOti), with heavy brass ornament (adikya) in 
dilated lobe of each ear. 

Woman, set. 30. Neck and ear-ornaments of same type 
as preceding, but two brass rings in each helix, and one 
cajan roll, to drive away cough and fever. 

Eight hand — 

Four brass rings, thumb and middle finger. 
Four brass and two copper rings, ring finger. 

Left hand — 

One copper ring, thumb. 

One steel ring, middle finger. 

Three copper, and five brass rings, ring finger. 

Girl, set. 12. Ears dilated by small cajan ornaments 
(gradual dilatation). Necklet with brass ornament with 
Travancore coin device. Brass ring on right ring finger. 

Girl, set. 13. String round neck to act as a charm in 
warding off fever. Neck ornament with brass imitation 
Venetian sequin. Brass bead necklets and ear scoop. Brass 
and steel bangles on right wrist; brass bangles on left 
wrist. Three copper, three brass, and two steel rings on 
right ring finger. Long slit in lobe of each ear for ear 
ornaments. 

Woman, set. 30. Mass of brass rings and solid brass 
ornament in lobe of each ear. Thin brass rings in each 
helix. Neck heavily decorated with glass bead necklets, and 
necklet with heavy heart-shaped ornaments. Five brass 
bangles on right fore-arm ; steel bangle on left fore-arm. 
One copper and two brass rings, left ring finger ; five copper 
rings, left little finger. 

Woman, set. 25. Ear ornan^ents same as preceding. 
Neck heavily decorated with brass and glass bead necklets, 
one with ear scoop and tooth-pick pendent from a string. 
Brass necklet of ornaments with Travancore coin device. 
String necklet with 5 brass cylinders pendent, 5 brass 
bangles on right ^rist ; 6 brass, 2 iron bangles left wrist. 
Eight hand. 

1 copper, 5 brass rings, middle finger. 
1 iron, 3 brass rings, little finger. 



123 

Left hand. 

1 copper, 5 "brass rings, middle finger. 

3 brass, 2 copper rings, ring finger. 

1 brass ring, Kttle finger. 
"Woman, set, 25. Cajan roll in lobe of rigbt ear. Eolled 
leaf in lobe of left ear. 

Tbe subject of artificial enlargement of tbe ear-lobe, 
and the geographical distribution of this artificial mutila- 
tion, hj which the lobes are sometimes torn asun^der, are 
treated of in an admirable paper by Mr. J. Park Harrison 
(Joum. Anth. Inst., Yol. II, 1873). The practice of en- 
larging the ear-lobe is there recorded from Easter Island, 
India and Ceylon, Assam, Arakan, Burma and Laos, the 
Asiatic Islands (Nias, Nicobar, Borneo, etc.), South Pacific, 
America, and Africa. In his reference to India, Mr. Harri- 
son says : " In the district of Madura, Dr. Shortt mentions 
that among the Maravars, who form the greater part of 
the population, the practice of piercing the ear-lobes, and 
* so distending them as to touch the shoulders,^ is still kept up 
among the women. The operation is here, as in other coun- 
tries where the custom prevails, carried out during infancy, 
and the aperture in the ear-lobe is very gradually enlarged. 
Salt and water is applied during the first day or two ; and 
at the end of a month weights, each slightly heavier than 
the last, are attached to the lobe until it is brought to the 
requisite length. Though ear ornaments of considerable 
size are common in other parts of India, I have not been 
able to learn that the lobe of the ear is now distorted in the 
manner above described in any other districts except 
Madura and Malabar.'^ 

Mr. Harrison further refers to the fact that in one of the 
earliest fragments of sculpture in India, viz., the frieze of a 
temple at Bhitari near Benares, the Indian Bacchus, or 
the sun, has a disc of considerable size in the lobe of the 
right ear. And he points out that artificial enlargement of 
the lobe appears originally to have been adopted for the 
purpose of receiving a solar disc ; and that the Ceylon 
Buddha, when he renounced idolatry, removed the emblem 
from his ear-lobes, which necessarily hung down in the 
manner shown in his images. 

In the sculptures exhibited in the Madras Museum from 
the magnificent ruined stupa at Amaravati on the Kistna 
river, which dates back to the first centuries of the Christian 



124 - 

Era, not only is Baddha himself represented witli the lobes 
of his ears dilated (without ornaments), but man/ of the 
figures, both male and female, have the lobes dilated, and 
ornamented with heavj rings with pendents, discs, and spiral 
rolls, and the upper arms, fore-arms and ankles are adorned 
either with series of light bangles, or with fewer heav/ 
bangles, after the manner which still prevails at the present 
day among the females of some of the native tribes of 
Southern India. Moreover, the T band round the loins 
(the " bande en T of the Mois,'^ of M. Zaborowski) is, in the 
Amaravati sculptures, everywhere en evidence. It is 
then possible by a study of these sculptures to trace back 
the form of jewelry and rude attire which are still in vogue, 
to the second century A.D. (vide Plate xxii). 

While the present chapter was being written, I learned 
that my friend, the Rev. A. Margoschis, of the S.P.Gr. 
Mission, Tinnevelly, was an authority on the subject of ear- 
lobe dilatation. To him I am indebted for the following note 
on " the long ears of certain classes of women in Southern 
India.'' " To produce this artificial deformity," he writes, 
" is the work of men of the Korayar caste, whose occupations 
are bird-catching and basket-making. On or about the 
third day after birth, the troubles of a female infant begin, 
for the child^s ears must be operated on, and for this pur- 
pose a knife with a triangular blade is used. Sometimes 
the ceremony is postponed until the child is sixteen days 
old. Among the Hindus a " good day '' is selected, and 
Christians choose Sundays. The point of the knife is run 
through the lobe of the ear until the blade has penetrated 
for half an inch of its length. Both ears are cut, and a 
piece of cotton-wool is placed in the wounds, to keep the 
cut portions dilated. Every other day the Koravan must 
change the wool, and increase the quantity introduced. If 
the sores fester, a dressing is used of castor-oil and human 
milk* in equal parts, and, if there is much suppuration, an 
astringent, such as tamarind juice lotion, is used. The cut 
lobes will take not less than one month to heal, and for the 
whole of that time the process of dilatation is continued by 
passing through the lobes pledgets of cotton- wool, increasing 
gradually in size. After the wounds have healed, pieces of 
cotton cloth are rolled up, and placed in the lobes instead of 
the cotton- wool, and this is done for a few days only, when 

* Human milk, vide ' Tattooing,' p. 117. 



PL. XXII. 




FIGURES FROM AMARAVATI 



125 

leaden rings are substituted, whidi are added to in number 
until as manj as six or eight rings aie in eacb. ear. Tbese 
drag tbe lobes down more and more, and hy tbe time tbe 
infant is one year old, tbe process of elongating tbe lobes is 
complete in so far as tbe acute stage is concerned, and all 
tbat is necessary afterwards is to leave tbe leaden rings in 
tbe lobes, and to let tbe elongated ears grow as tbe cbild 
grows. Instead of keeping a large number of rings in tb© 
ears, tbey are melted down into two beavy, tbick rings, 
wbicb are kept in tbe ears until tbe girl is twelve or tbirteen 
years of age, and by tbat time tbe acme of beauty will baye 
been attained so far as tbe ears are concerned, because tbe 
lobes will reacb down to tbe sboulders on eacb side. This 
is perfection. Tbe fees for tbe operation in tbe first 
instance are from 3 fanams to 5 J fanams (10 annas to R. 
1-1-6). Tbe custom described prevails among tbe follow- 
ing castes; — Yellalas, Sbdnars, Maravars, Paravars, sbep- 
berds, dyers, tailors, oilmongers, Pallars, and Pariabs. "No 
people of tbe Telugu castes observe tbe custom, nor do any 
Brabmans. Tbe females of tbe Paravar caste (Roman 
Catbolic fisber caste) are famous for tbe longest ears, and for 
wearing tbe beaviest and most expensive golden ear jewels 
made of sovereigns. Ordinary ear jewels cost Rs. 200, but 
beavy jewels are wortb Rs. 1,000, and even more. It is said 
tbat tbe longer tbe ears tbe more jewels can be used, and 
tbis appears to be tbe rationale of elongated ears. 

" In former days men also bad long ears, but it is now 
reserved for tbe man wbo plays tbe bow and bells at demon 
dances. Witb regard to tbe prevalence of tbis custom of 
mangling tbe buman body, and tbe possibility of its gradual 
removal, tbe Missionaries, especially in Tinnevelly, bave all 
along been tbe sternest foes of tbe barbarity. In one board- 
ing scbool alone, consisting of 224 girls, tbere are 165 witb 
sbort ears, so tbat only 59 bave tbem elongated. Tbis is 
tbe result of tbe advice and teaching of tbe European 
Missionaries. But, stranger still to relate, of tbe 165 girls 
mentioned above, no less tban 51 bave bad tbeir long ears 
operated on and cut sbort at tbe Mission hospital, and this 
tbey bave consented to as a voluntary act. As it was once tbe 
fashion to bave long ears, and a mark of respectability, so 
now tbe converse is true. Until tbe last twenty years, if a 
woman bad short ears, she was asked if she was a dancing 
girl {devadasi), because that class kept tbeir ears natural. 
Now, witb tbe change of customs all round, even dancing 
girls are found witb long ears. Mubammadan women bave 



126 

their ears pierced all round the outer edges, and as manj as 
twenty or twenty-five wire rings, made of iron or gold, are 
inserted in tlie holes ; but the lobes are not elongated. 

" The artificial deforming of the body assumes various 
phases in different parts of the world, and we have but 
to refer to the small feet of the Chinese, the flattening of 
the skull of infants amongst the North American Indians, 
and the piercing and elongation of the upper lip amongst 
certain tribes in Central Africa. In all cases these are 
attempts to improve upon nature, and the results are as 
revolting as they are often ghastly and wickedly cruel. 
The torture inflicted upon helpless Tamil babes is so great 
that it would be humane and righteous for Grovernment 
to interfere, and to abolish long ears. The number of per- 
sons suffering from dea&ess, and from chronic discharges 
from the ear, is very considerably increased in conse- 
quence of the barbarity described above.^^ Barbaric prac- 
tices may be regarded from two points of view, humani- 
tarian and ethnographic. And, while sympathising as a 
human being with the suppression of cruel rites such as the 
meriah sacrifice, female infanticide, and hook-swinging, as 
an etbaologist I regard with sorrow the fast approching 
extinctioa of less brutal customs, which afford endless 
' copy. ' If long ears were to be abolished by legislation, 
so too should be the painful process of squeezing bangles 
over the baud on to the wrist, and other mild ordeals 
which native custom requires, or demands. 

In connection with the practice of dilating the lobes of 
the ears among the Kalians of the Madura district, Mr. 
J. H. Nelson writes * that, " both males and females are 
accustomed to stretch to the utmost possible limit the lobes of 
their ears. The unpleasant disfigurement is effected by the 
mother boring the ears of her baby, and inserting heavy 
pieces of metal, generally lead, into the apertures. The 
effect so produced is very wonderful, and it is not at all 
uncommon to see the ears of a Kalian hanging on his 
shoulders. When violently angry, a Kalian will sometimes 
tear in two the attenuated strips of flesh, which constitute 
his ears, expecting thereby to compel his adversary to do 
likewise as a sort of amende honorable : and altercations 
between women constantly lead to one or both parties having 
the ears. violently pulled asunder. And formerly, where a 

* ' Manual of the Madura District,' 1868. 



PL. XXV. 





«^^ 



TIYAR WOMAN, MAI.ABAR. 



127 

Kalla girl was deputed^ as frequentlj "happened, to guide a 
stranger in safety through a Kalla tract, if anj of her caste- 
people attempted to offer violence to her charge in spite of 
her protestations, she would immediatelj tear open one of 
her ears, and run oif at full speed to her home to complain 
of what had been done. And the result of her complaint 
was invariablj a sentence to the effect, among other things, 
that the culprits should have both their ears torn in expia- 
tion of their breach of the by-laws of the forest/^ 

Mr. H. Gr. Nicholson, who was some years ago Head 
Assistant Collector at Ramnad in the Madura district, tells 
me that the joung Maravan princesses used to come and 
play in his garden, and that, as they ran races, they used 
to hang on to their ears, lest the heavy ornaments should 
rend asunder the filamentous ear-lobes. 

Among the female Tiyans of Malabar, whom I have 
recently studied, the practice of dilating the lobes of ears 
prevails, though the deformity is not carried to such an 
extreme length as among the Kalians and Maravans. The 
operation is performed, when the child is a few months or a 
few years old, either by goldsmiths or by astrologers called 
Pannikar in South, and Kanisan in North Malabar. The 
lobe is pierced with a gold pin or thorn, and a thread 
inserted to prevent the wound from closing up. The ear is 
dressed daily with butter. , After a week or two the thread 
is replaced by a thin plug of wood, and subsequently gradual 
dilatation is effected by means of pith soaked in water to 
make it swell. Further dilatation is effected by means of 
solid wooden ornaments, or rolls of lead or cajan. 



128 

A TODA TETITION. 



In my account of tlie Todas (Bull : No. 4, 1896) reference 
was made to the fact tliat the quondam simple-minded 
and milk-drinking Toda is thoroughly up to date in sub- 
mitting petitions written in the bazaar bj professional 
petition- writers, appealing to your honour's seat of 
mercy, &c. In this connection the following petition relat- 
ing to the slaughter of buffaloes at the Toda funerals 
(kedus), which was recently submitted to Government 
through, delegates of the Toda community, is not without 
interest. I therefore reproduce it in its entirety. 

To THE HONOUEABLE BoARD OP EevENUE. 

Tbe humble petition of one hundred and twenty mem- 
bers of the Toda Community of and near Ootacamund, 
Nilgiris, through their counsel showeth — 

1. That from time immemorial your petitioners' com- 
munity have, on the death of one of their number, held a 
kedu, at which they practise certain religious rites peculiar 
to their tribe. 

2. That one of their rites is the sacrifice of buffaloes, so 
that the dead may not enter the abode of the shades without 
at least some of the appearance of the respectability he was 
accustomed to in his lifetime. 

3. That the sacrifice of buffaloes at the kedu is the 
most important of all the rites and ceremonies of the religion 
which the community of Todas, your petitioners, practise ; 
and that, without its due and proper observance, they 
believe that they are prejudiced in the next world, while 
the reputation of the surviving relatives of the dead are 
lowered in the eyes of the community from the same cause. 

4. That, unfortunately for your petitioners' community, 
it has of late years become the fashion for Europeans to 
attend their kedus as a kind of theatrical display got up 
for their benefit ; and it is from this fact that an impression 
has got abroad that unnecessary cruelty is practised on the 
buffaloes before they receive the " coup de gr^ce," as in a 
bull-fight in Spain : an impression that your petitioners 
maintain is entirely unjustified. 



129 

5. That the complaints and allegations of cruelty that 
have been made from time to time after a kedu have pro- 
ceeded, not from those who had been present at, and 
witnessed the ceremony, but by those who have onlj heard 
that kedu did take place, buffaloes were killed thereat, and 
that certain Europeans were present and witnessed the 
ceremony. 

That, if any further proof were needed of this state- 
ment, your petitioners would recall to your Honourable 
Board''s recollection that probably the fullest account yet 
written of what transpires at these kedus came from the pen 
of the Honourable Mr. J. D. Eees, c.i.E., Collector of the 
Nilgiri and was published in such a well-known and 
widely read magazine as the ^ Nineteenth Century ' ; and 
that this full and descriptive article appeared some ten 
years ago; that many kedus have taken place since, a,t 
which it has been the fashion for Europeans to attend in 
increasing numbers ; and that until quite lately no allega- 
tion of cruelties practised at the kedus has been made, or, if 
made, seriously entertained by the authorities. 

6. That the order passed on 30th March 1886 (No. 834, 
Judicial) restricted the sacrifice of buffaloes to two animals, 
and that your petitioners have always understood this to 
mean two buffaloes for each dead person ; but that, in the 
view of the acting Collector of the Nilgiris, Mr. H. 
Tremenheere, it was by that order intended to restrict the 
number of the buffaloes sacrificed at any one kedu to two, 
irrespective of the number of dead Todas for whom such 
kedu was being held : a view that no previous Collector of 
Nilgiris adopted ; and that, in consequence, the proper 
holding and observance of a kedu is impossible. 

7. That your petitioners desire to draw the Honourable 
Board^s attention to the fact that, according to the custom 
of their community, unless a certain number of buffaloes 
are killed (two at least for each Toda), the members of the 
deceased^s family, who, as a rule, subscribe one buffalo 
apiece for the purposes of the kedu, will no longer make such 
gifts ; and that, if such gifts are not made, the kedu, which 
involves an outlay of a very considerable number of buffa- 
loes in addition to those sacrificed (as many are always killed 
for entertaining the Todas present), must altogether cease 
to exist. 



^ 



130 

8. That your petitioners crave that jour Honourable 
Board will clear up this pointy, and lay down, in explicit 
terms, whether the order was ever intended to impose such 
a restriction as interpreted by Mr. H. Tremenheere, the 
acting Collector of Nilgiris. 

9. That, in the event of this restriction being found to 
be the intention of the order, your petitioners beg that your 
Honourable Board will give the matter their earnest atten- 
tion, with a view to advising His Excellency the Grovernor 
in Council to rescind it, and remove such disabilities as 
your petitioners suffer from under it. 

And your petitioners will ever pray. 

On behalf of the 120 Toda petitioners. 

Mt * * * 

Petitioners^ Counsel. 

OOTACAMUND, 

20th February, 1897. 

In passing orders on the petition, the Q-ovemment 
ruled that the interpretation put upon the existing orders 
in the matter by the District Magistrate (Collector) was 
correct ; and that the number of animals killed at any one 
kedu should be restricted to tv^o, whatever may be the 
number of Todas, in connection with, whose decease the 
kedu is held. 



^> 



n 



MADRAS GOVERNMENT MUSEUM. 



Bulletin, Vol. II, No. 3. 



ANTHROPOLOGY. 



Kadirs of the Anaimalais ; Malaialis of the Shevaroys ; 

Syllabus of Demonstrations on Anthropology ; 

The Dravidian Head; The Dravidian Problem. 

With Seven Plates. 

BY 

EDGAR THURSTON, 

Sdpeeixtendent, Madras Government Museum j Correspondant 
^^TEANGER, Soci^t:^ d'Antheopologie db Paeis. 



MADRAS: 

PRINTED BY THE SUPERINTENDENT, GOVERNMENT PRESS. 

%w [Price, 1 ru^jee.] 1899. [I shilling Q pence.] ^^y 



BY EDQAE THUE8T0N. 



Vol. I. 

No. 1. — Pearl and Chank Fisheries of the Gulf of 
Manaar. 

No. 2. — Note on Tours along the Malabar Coast. 

No. 3. — Bamesvaram Island and Fauna of the Gulf of 

Manaar. 

No. 4. — Anthropology of the Tod as and Kotas op thb 
NiLGiRi Hills ; and of the Brahmans, Kam- 

MALANS, PaLLIS AND PaRIAHS OF MaDRAS CiTY. 

Vol 11. 

No. 1= — Anthropology of the Badagas and Trulas of thh 
NiLGiRis; Paniyans of Malabar; Chinese-Tamil 
t^ROss ; Cheruman Skull ; KurXiba or Ktjrumba ; 
Summary of Results. 

No. 2.— Eurasians (Poorer Classes) of Madras and Malabar ; 
Note on Tattooing; Malagas y-Nias-Dravidians ; 

To DA PfiflTION. 






MADEAS GOVERNMENT MUSEUM. 



Bulletin, Vol. II, No. 3. 



ANTHROPOLOGY. 



Kadirs of the Anaimalais ; Malaialis of the Shevaroys; 

Syllabus of Demonstrations on Anthropology ; 

The Dravidian Head; The Dravidian Problem. 

With Seven Plates. 



BY 

EDGAR THUESTON, 

Superintendent, Madras Government Museum j Correspondant 
Stranger, Socii^t:^ d'Anthropologie de Paris. 



MADRAS: 

PRINTED BY THE SUPERINTENDENT, GOVERNMENT PRESS. 

1899. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

KADIRS of the ANAIMALAIS 131-151 

MALAIALIS of the SHEVAROYS 152-169 

SYLLABUS OF DEMONSTRATIONS 170-180 

NOTE ON THE DRAVIDIAN HEAD 1^^ 

THE DRAVIDIAN PROBLEM ^ • 182-197 



ANTHROPOLOOY. 



KIDIES OF THE ANAIMALAIS. 



In striking and pleasant contrast to the suspicious Malaialis, 
who are dealt with in the next chapter, were the friendly 
Kadirs, who inhabit the Anaimalai hills (= elephant hills) 
and the mountain range which extends thence southward 
into Trayancore. This studj was undertaken with a view 
to acquiring an addition to our existing fragmentary knowl- 
edge of the shortj broad-nosed tribes of Southern India, 
round whom, as the living remnant of an ancient, and 
once more numerous race, much interest will be found to 
centre when, if ever, these stray notul^e are amalgamated 
in book form. 

A night journey by rail to Coimbatore, and forty miles 
thence by road at the mercy of a typically obstinate jutka 
pony, which landed me in a dense patch of prickly-pear 
{Opuntia Dillenii), brought me to the foot of the hills at 
Sethumadai, where I came under the kindly hospitality of 
the Conservator of Forests, Mr. H. A. Grass, and the District 
Forest Officer, Mr. F. A. Lodge. To the former, who has 
had long experience of the Kadirs, I am indebted for much 
information on forest and tribal matters, gathered during 
a fortnight of camp life at Mount Stuart, situated 2,350 
feet above sea-level in the midst of a dense bamboo jungle, 
and playfully named after Sir Mountstuart Grant-Duff, 
who visited the spot during his Madras quinquennium. 

At; Sethumadai I made the acquaintance of my first 
Kadir, not dressed, as I hoped, in a primitive garb of 
leaves, but wearing a coloured turban and the cast-off red 
coat of a British soldier, who had come down the hill to 
carry up my camp bath, which acted as an excellent 
umbrella, to protect him from the driving showers. Very 
glad was I of his services in helping to convey my clothed, 
and consequently helpless self, across the mountain torrents 



132 

swollen by a recent burst of monsoon rain. Mount Stuart 
is easily accessible by a gbat road fit for bullock-cart 
traffic, and I lodge a protest against the short cut, up the 
steep and slippery boulders of which a pilot forest-guard 
conducted me, as being a severe trial to both lungs and legs 
of one fresh from city life in the plains, and a course of a 
daily maximum of 98° to 104° in the shade. 

The Kadir forest- guar ds^ of whom there are several 
serving under the Government, looked, except for their 
noses, very unjungle-like by contrast with their fellow- 
tribesmen, being smartly dressed in regulation Norfolk 
jacket, knickerbocker-trouserSj pattis (leggings), buttons, 
and accoutrements. 

On arrival at the forest depOt, with its comfortable 
bungalows and Kadir settlement, I was told by a native 
servant that his master was away, as an '*' elephant done 
tumble in a fit." My memory went back to the occasion, 
many years ago, when I took part in the autopsy of an 
elephant, which died in convulsions at the London Zoolo- 
gical Gardens. Its brain, I remember, weighed twelve 
pounds, and was very difficult of extraction owing to 
splintering of the cancellous tissue lining the air-sinuses. 
It transpired later in the day that a young and grown-up 
cow elephant had tumbled, not in a fit, but into a pit made 
with hands. The story has a philological significance, and 
illustrates the difficulty which the Tamulian experiences 
in dealing with the letter P. 

An incident is still cherished at Mount Stuart in con- 
nection with a sporting ^ globe-trotter, ' who was accredited 
to the Conservator of Forests for the purpose of putting him 
on to * bison ' (the gaur — Bos gaurus) and other big game. 
On arrival at the depot he was informed that his host had 
gone to see the '' ellipence.^' Incapable of translating 
the pigeon- English of the Pariah butler, and concluding 
that a financial reckoning was being suggested, he ordered 
the servant to pay the baggage coolies their elli-pence, and 
send them away. To a crusted Anglo-Indian it is clear 
that ellipence could only mean elephants. 

The salient characteristics of the Kadirs, which will be 
dealt with in detail hereafter, may be briefly summed up as 
follows : short stature ; dark skin ; platyrhine. Men and 
women have the incisor teeth chipped. Women wear 
bamboo combs in the back-hair. Those whom I met with 
spoke a Tamil patois, running up the scale in talking, and 



PL. XXVI. 



i" 







r^ 



KADIR MAN. 



133 

finishiiig, like a Suffolker, on a higher note than they 
commenced on. But I am told that some of them speak 
a mixture of Tamil and Malajalam. 

The Kadirs afford a typical example of happiness with- 
out culture. Unspoiled by education, the advancing wave 
of which has not yet engulfed them, they still retain many 
of their simple " manners and customs/^ Quite refreshing 
was it to hear the hearty shrieks of laughter of the nude 
curly-haired children, wholly illiterate, and happy in their 
ignorance, as they played at funerals, or indulged in the 
amusement of making mud pies, and scampered off to their 
huts on my appearance. The uncultured Kadir, living a 
hardy out-door life, and capable of appreciating to the full 
the enjoyment of an " apathetic rest '' as perfect bliss, has, 
I am convinced, in many ways, the advantage over the poor 
under-fed student with a small-paid appointment under 
Government as the narrow goal to which the laborious 
passing of examination tests leads. 

Living an isolated existence, confined within the thinly- 
populated jungle, where Nature furnishes the means of 
obtaining all the necessaries of life, the Kadir possesses 
little, if any, knowledge of cultivation, and objects to doing 
work with a mamuti, the instrument which serves the 
gardener in the triple capacity of spade, rake, and hoe. 
But armed with a keen-edged bill-hook he is immense. 
As Mr. 0. H. Bensley says ^ : '^ The axiom that the less 
civilised men are, the more they are able to do every thing 
for themselves, is well illustrated by the hill-man, who is 
full of resource. Give him a simple bill-hook, and what 
wonders he will perform. He will build houses out of 
etah, so neat and comfortable as to be positively luxurious. 
He will bridge a stream with canes and branches. He 
will make a raft out of bamboo, a carving knife out of 
etah, a comb out of bamboo, a fishing-line out of fibre, and 
a match from dry wood. He will find food for you where 
you think you must starve, and show you the branch 
which, if cut, will give you drink. He will set traps for 
beasts and birds, which are more effective than some of 
the most elaborate products of machinery.^^ A European, 
overtaken by night in the jungle, unable to light fire by 
friction or to climb trees to gather fruits, ignorant of the 
edible roots and berries, and afraid of wild beasts, would 

^ Lecture delivered at Triyandrum, M.8, 



iu 

in the absence of comforts, be quite as unLappy and ill- 
at-ease as a Kadir surrounded by plenty at an official 
dinner-party. 

At tlie forest dep6t the Kadir settlement consists of 
neatly constructed huts, made of bamboo deftly split with a 
bill-hook in their long axis, thatched with leaves of the 
teak tree {Tectona grandis) and bamboo {Bees/ia travancorica)^ 
and divided off into verandah and compartments by means 
of bamboo partitions. But the Kadirs are essentially 
nomad in habit, living in small communities, and shifting 
from place to place in the jungle, whence they suddenly 
re-appear as casually as if they had only returned from a 
morning stroll instead of a long camping expedition. In 
this way the wondrous type figured in Plate XXVI, of whom 
I knew by repute, turned up to my joy during my stay at 
Mount Stuart, and was instantly photographed, lest he 
should disappear again as mysteriously as he arrived. 
When wandering in the jungle, the Kadirs make a rough 
lean-to shed covered over with leaves, and keep a small fire 
burning through the night, to keep off bears, elephants, 
tigers, and leopards. They are, I am told, fond of dogs, 
which they keep chiefly as a protection against wild beasts 
at night. The camp fire is lighted by means of a flint and 
the floss of the silk-cotton tree {Bomhax malabaricum) ^ over 
which powdered charcoal has been rubbed. Like the 
Kurumbas, the Kadirs are not, in a general way, afraid of 
elephants, but are careful to get out of the way of a cow 
with young, or a solitary rover, which may mean mischief. 
On the day following my descent from Mount Stuart, a 
Wudder cooly woman was killed on the gh§t road by a 
solitary tusker. Familiarity with wild beasts, and com- 
parative immunity from accident, have bred contempt for 
them, and the Kadirs will go where the European, fresh 
to elephant land, fears to tread, or conjures every creak of 
a bamboo into the approach of a charging tusker. As an 
example of pluck worthy of a place in Kipling's ' Jungle- 
book,' 1 may cite the case of a hill-man and his wife, who, 
overtaken by night in the jungle, decided to pass it on a 
rock. As they slept, a tiger carried ofi" the woman. 
Hearing her shrieks, the sleeping man awoke, and followed 
in pursuit in the vain hope of saving his wife. Coming on 
the beast in possession of the mangled corpse, he killed it 
at close-quarters with a spear. Yet he was wholly uncon- 
scious that he had performed an act of heroism worthy of 
the bronze cross ^ for valour.' 



PL. XXVII, 




KADIR WOMAN. 



135 

The Kadirs carry loads strapped on tLe back over the 
shoulders by means of fibre, instead of on the head in the 
nianner customary among coolies in the plains ; and women 
on the march may be seen carrying the cooking utensils on 
their backs, and often have a child strapped on the top of 
their household goods. The dorsal position of the babies, 
huddled up in a dirty cloth, with the ends slung over the 
shoulders and held in the hands over the chest, at once 
caught my eye, as it is contrary to the usual native habit 
of straddling the infants across the loins as a saddle. 

The Kadirs have never claimed, like the Todas, and 
do not possess any land on the hills. But the Govern- 
ment has declared the absolute right of the hill tribes to 
collect all the minor forest produce, and to sell it to the 
Government through the medium of a contractor, whose 
tender has been previously accepted. The contractor pays 
for the produce in coin at a fair market rate, and the 
Kadirs barter the money so obtained for articles of food 
with contractors appointed by Government to supply them 
with their requirements at a fixed rate, which will leave a 
fair, but not exorbitant margin of profit to the vendor. The 
principal articles of minor forest produce of the Anaimalai 
hills are wax, honey _, cardamoms, myrabolams, ginger, dam- 
mar, turmeric, ^deer horns, elephant tusks^ and rattans. 
And of these, cardamoms, wax, honey, and rattans are the 
most important. Honey and wax are collected at all seasons, 
and cardamoms from September to November. The total 
value of the minor produce collected, in 1897-98, in the 
South Coimbatore division (which includes the Anaimalais) 
was Es, 7,886. This sum was exceptionally high owing to 
a good cardamom crop. An average year would yield a 
revenue of Es. 4,000 — 5,000, of which the Kadirs receive 
approximately 50 per cent. They work for the Forest de.- 
partment on a system of short advances for a daily wage of 
four annas. And, at the present day, the interests of the 
Forest department and planters, who have acquired land on 
the Anaimalais, both anxious to secure hill men for labour, 
have come into mild collision. 

Some Kadirs are good trackers, and a few are good 
shikaris. A zoological friend, who had nicknamed his 
small child his '^ little shikaree '^ (= little sportsman) was 
quite upset because I^ hailing from India, did not recognise 
the word with its misplaced accent. One Kadir, named 
Yiapoori Muppan, is still held in the memory of Europeans, 



136 

who made a good living, in days gone by, by shooting tusk- 
ers, and Lad one arm blown off by the bursting of a gun. 
He is reputed to have been a much married man, greatly 
addicted to strong drinks, and to have flourished on the 
proceeds of his tusks. At the present day, if a Kadir finds 
tusks, he must declare the find as treasure -trove, and hand 
it over to Government, who rewards him at the rate of Rs. 
15 to Ks. 25 per maund of 25 lbs. according to the quality. 
Government makes a good profit on the transaction, as 
exceptionally good tusks have been known to sell for Rs. 5 
per lb. If the find is nofc declared, and discovered, the 
possessor thereof is punished for theft according to the Act. 
By an elastic use of the word cattle, it is, for the purposes of 
the Madras Forest Act, made to include such a heteroge- 
neous zoological collection of mammalia as elephants, sheep, 
pigs, goats, camels, buffaloes, horses — and asses. A classi- 
fication which recalls to mind the occasion on which the 
Flying-fox or Fox-bat was included in an official list of the 
insectivorous birds of the Presidency ; and, further, a report 
on the wild animals of a certain district, which was trium- 
phantly headed with the "wild tattu,'' the long-suffering, 
but pig-headed country pony, at whose hands most touring 
officers have " suffered much misery ^^ (as the Natives ex- 
pressed their feelings when a certain fast-bowling Colonel 
went on in a cricket match) . 

Often, when out on the tramp with the late Government 
Botanist^ Mr. M. A. Lawson, I have heard him lament that 
it is impossible to train arboreal monkeys to collect speci- 
mens of the fruit and flowers of lofty forest trees, which 
are inaccessible to the ordinary man. Far superior to any 
trained Simian is the Kadir, who, by means of pegs or 
notches, climbs even the tallest masts of trees with an 
rility which recalls to memory the celebrated picture in 
*unch,^ representing Darwin's ' Habit of climbing plants.' 
For the ascent of comparatively low trees, notches are made 
with a bill-hook, alternately right and left, at intervals of 
about thirty inches. To this method the Kadir will not 
have recourse in wet weather, as the notches are damp and 
slippery, and there is the danger of an insecure foot-hold. 
In the system of scaling a tree by means of pegs {vide Plate 
XXYIII), a number of pegs, made of sharp-pointed bamboo, 
are carried round the loins, and driven securely into the tree 
by sharp blows with a bill-hook. The pegs are left in the 
tree, and a fresh set used for the next tree. 



PL. XXVIII. 




KADIR TREE-CIJMBING. 



137 

I gather, from an anonymous account of the process by 
one who had considerable knowledge of the Kadirs, that 
" they will only remove the hives during dark nights, and 
never in the day-time or on moonlight nights. In remov- 
ing them from cliffs, they use a chain made of cane or 
rattan, fixed to a stake or a tree on the top. The man, 
going down this fragile ladder, will only do so while his wife 
or son watches above to prevent any foul play. They have 
a superstition that they should always return the way they 
go down, and decline to get to the bottom of the cliff, 
although the distance may be less, and the work of re-climb- 
ing avoided. For hives on trees, they tie one or more long 
bamboos to reach up to the branch required, and then climb 
up. They then crawl along the branch until the hive is 
reached. They devour the bee-bread and the bee-maggots or 
larvae, swallowing the wax as well."'^ In a note on a shoot- 
ing expedition in Travancore,^ Mr. J. D. Rees, describing 
the collection of honey by the Kadirs, of the southern hills, 
says that they " descend giddy precipices at night, torch in 
hand, to smoke out the bees, and take away their honey. A 
stout creeper is suspended over the abyss, and it is estab- 
lished law of the jungle that no brother shall assist in 
holding it. But it is moro interesting to see them run a 
ladder a hundred feet up the perpendicular stem of a tree, 
than to watch them disappearing over a precipice. Axe in 
hand, the honey-picker makes a hole in the bark for a little 
peg, standing on which he inserts a second peg higher up, 
ties a long cane from one to the other, and by night — for the 
darkness gives confidence — he will ascend the tallest trees, 
and bring down honey without any accident." I have been 
told, with how much of truth I know not, that, when a 
Kadir goes down the face of a rock or precipice in search 
of honey, he sometimes takes with him, as a precautionary 
measure, and guarantee of his safety, the wife of the man 
who is holding the ladder above. 

An important ethnographic fact, and one which is signi- 
ficant, is that the detailed description of tree-climbing by 
the Dyaks of Borneo, as given by Wallace,^ might have 
been written on the Anaimalai hiUs, and would apply equally 
well in every detail to the Kadir. " They drove in, '* 
"Wallace writes, '^ a peg very firmly at about three feet from 
the ground, and, bringing one of the long bamboos, stood it 
upright close to the tree, and bound it firmly to the two first 

* Nineteenth Century, 1898. ^ ' Malay Archipelago ' . 



138 

pegs by means of a bark cord and small notcbes near tbe 
head of each peg. One of the Dyaks now stood on the first 
peg and drove in a third about level with his face, to which 
he tied the bamboo in the same way, and then mounted 
another step, standing on one foot, and holding by the bam- 
boo at the peg immediately above him, while he drove in 
the next one. In this manner he ascended about twenty 
feet, when the upright bamboo became thin ; another was 
handed up by his companion, and this was joined on by 
tying both bamboos to three or four of the pegs. When 
this was also nearly ended, a third was added, and shortly 
after the lowest branch of the tree were reached, along 
which the young Dyak scrambled. 

" The ladder was perfectly safe, since, if any one peg were 
loose or faulty, the strain would be thrown on several others 
above and below it. I now understood the use of the line 
of bamboo pegs stickiug in trees, which I had often seen.'" 
Such is the description given by Wallace, and it may be 
compared with Plate XXVIII, which represents a tree with 
a line of pegs left in it, and an agile young Kadir climbing 
a tree by means of pegs with bamboos bound to them. 

In their search for produce in the evergreen forests of 
the higher ranges, with their heavy rainfall, the Kadirs be- 
come unpleasantly familiar with leeches and blue bottle flies, 
which flourish in the moist climate. And it is recorded 
that a Kadir, who had been gored and wounded by a 
bull ' bison,^ was placed in a position of safety while a friend 
ran to the village to summon help. He was not away for 
more than an hour, but, in that short time, flies had deposited 
thousands of maggots in the wounds, and, when the man 
was brought into camp, they had already begun burrowing 
into the flesh, and were with difficulty extracted. On 
another occasion, the eye-witness of the previous unappetis- 
ing incident was out alone in the forest, and shot a tiger 
two miles or so from his camp. Thither he went to collect 
coolies to carry in the carcase, and was away for about two 
hours, during which the flies had, like the child in the story, 
' not been idle,^ the skin being a mass of maggots and 
totally ruined. I have it on authority that, like the Kotas 
of the Nilgiris, the Kadirs will eat the putrid and tly- blown 
flesh of carcases of wild beasts, which they come across in 
their wanderings. To a dietary which includes succulent 
roots, which they upturn with a digging stick, sheep, fowls, 
rock-snakes (Python), deer^ porcupines, rats (field, not 



PL. XXIX. 




KADIR BOY. 



Louse), wild pigs, monkeys, &c., they do credit by dis- 
playing a hard, well-nourished body. The mealy portion 
of the seeds of the Cycas tree^ which flourishes on the lower 
slopes of the Anaimalais, forms, a considerable addition to 
the menu. In its raw state the fruit is said to be poison- 
ous, but it is evidently wholesome when cut into slices, 
thoroughly soaked in running water, dried, and ground into 
fl.our tor making cakes, or baked in hot ashes. The Kadir 
is said to prefer roasting and eating the flesh of animals 
with the skin on. For catching rats, jungle-fowl, &c.; he 
resorts to cunningly devised snares and traps made of 
bamboo and fibre, as a substitute for a gun. Porcupines 
are caught by setting fire to the scrub jungle round them 
as they lie asleep, and thus smoking and burning them to 
death. 

When a Kadir youth's thoughts turn towards matrimony, 
his parents, who select his bride, go to the parents of the 
girl, and ask their consent to the proposed alliance. If 
this is accorded, a dinner-party is given at the home of the 
bridegroom- elect. During the period of engagement the 
young man's parents give meals of rice and other things 
to their future daughter-in-law, They make presents too, 
in view of purchase money, of a new turban and cloth to 
the girl's father, and a new cloth to her mother. On the 
wedding day a feast of rice, sheep, fowls, and other luxu- 
ries, is given by the parents of the bridegroom, to which 
the Kadir community is invited. The bride and bridegroom 
stand beneath a pandal (arch) decorated with flowers, which 
is erected outside the home of the bridegroom, while men 
and women dance separately to the music of drum and pipe. 
The bridegroom's mother or sister ties the tali (marriage 
badge) of gold or silver round the bride's neck, and her 
father puts a turban on the head of the bridegroom. The 
contracting parties link together the little fingers of their 
right hands as a token of their union, and walk in proces- 
sion round the pandal. Then, sitting on a reed mat of 
Kadir manufacture, they exchange betel. The marriage 
tie can be dissolved for incompatibility of temper, disobe- 
dience on the part of the wife, adultery, &c., without appeal 
to any higher authority than a council of elders, who hear 
the arguments on both sides, and pronounce judgment on 
the evidence. As an illustration of the manner in which 
such a council of hill-men disposes of cases, Mr. Bensley 
cites the case of a man who was made to carry forty basket- 
loads of sand to the house of the person against whom he 



140 

liad offended. He points out how absolute is the control 
exercised by the council. Disobedience would be followed 
hy expulsion, and expulsion would mean being turned out 
into the jungle, to obtain a living in the best way one 
could. 

Bjr one Kadir informant I was assured, as he squatted 
on the floor of my bungalow at " question time," that it is 
essential that a wife should be a good cook, in accordaiice 
with the maxim that the way to the heart is through the 
mouth. How many men in civilised western society, who 
suffer from marrying a wife wholly incompetent, like the 
first Mrs. David Copperfield, to conduct the housekeeping, 
might well be envious of the system of marriage as a civil 
contract to be sealed or unloosed according to the cookery 
results ! Polygyny is indulged in by the Ktldirs, who agree 
with Benedick that ^^the world must be peopled,^ ^ and 
hold more especially that the numerical strength of their 
own tribe must be maintained. The plurality of wives 
seems to be mainly with the desire for offspring, and the 
father-in-law of one of the forest-guards informed me that 
he had four wives living. The first two wives producing 
no offspring, he married a third, who bore him a solitary 
male child. Considering the result to be an insufficient 
contribution to the tribe, he married a fourth, who, more 
prolific than her colleagues, gave birth to three girls and a 
boy, with which he remained content. In the code of 
polygynous etiquette, the first wife takes precedence over 
the others, and each wife has her own cooking utensils. 

Special huts are maintained for women during menstru- 
ation and parturition. For three months after the birth of 
a child, the woman is considered unclean. When the infant 
is a month old, it is named without any elaborate cere- 
monial, though the female friends of the family collect 
together. Sexual intercourse ceases on the establishment 
of pregnancy, and the husband indulges in promiscuity. 
Widows are' not allowed to re-marry, but may live in a state 
of concubinage. No ceremony is performed when boys or 
girls reach puberty. Women are said to suckle their 
children till they are two or three years old, and. a mother 
has been seen putting a lighted cigarette to the lips of a 
year old baby immediately after suckling it. If this is done 
with the intention of administering a sedative, it is less 
baneful than the pellet of opium administered to Anglo- 
Indian babies rendered fractious by troubles climatic, dental, 



PL. XXX. 




5 
< 



141 

and other. The Kadir women chew tobacco. The men 
smoke the coarse tobacco as sold in the bazars, and showed 
a marked appreciation of Spencer's Torpedoes No. 1, which 
I had to distribute among them in lieu of the cheaper 
cheroots, which generally travel with me for the purposes 
of bribery and conciliation. 

The religion of the Kadirs is a crude polytheism, and 
vague worship of stone images or invisible gods. It is, as 
Mr. Bensley expresses it, " an ejaculatory rehgion, finding 
vent in uttering the names of the gods and demons.'^ The 
gods, as enumerated and described to me, were as follows : — 

(J) Paikutlatha — a projecting rock overhanging a slab 
of rock, on which are two stones set up on end; Two miles 
east of Mount Stuart. 

(2) Athuvisariamma — a stone enclosure, 10 to 15 feet 
square, almost level with the ground. It is believed that 
the walls were originally ten feet high, and that the 
mountain has grown up round it. Within the enclosure 
there is no representation of the god. Eight miles north 
of Mount Stuart. 

(3) Yanathavathi has no shrine, but is worshipped 
anywhere as an invisible god. 

(4) lyappaswami — a stone set up beneath a teak tree, 
and worshipped as a protector against various forms of 
sickness and disease. In the act of worshipping, a mark 
is made on the stone with ashes. Two miles and a half 
from Mount Stuart, on the ghat road to Sethumadai. 

(5) Masanyatha — a female recumbent figure in stone 
on a masonry wall in an open plain near the village of Anai- 
malai^ before which trial by ordeal is carried out. The 
goddess has a high repute for her power of detecting thieves 
or rogues. Chillies are thrown into a fire in her name, and 
the guilty person suffers from vomiting and diarrhoea. 

When Kadirs fall sick, they worship the gods by salut- 
ing them with their hands to the face, burning camphor, 
and offering up fruits, cocoanuts and betel. 

The Kadir dead are buried in a grave, or^ if death 
occurs in the depths of the jungle, with a paucity of hands 
available for digging, the corpse is placed in a crovice 
between the rocks, and covered over with stones. The 
grave is dug from four to five feet deep. There is no special 
burial ground, but some spot in the jungle, not far from 
the scene of death, is selected. A band of music — drum and 



142 

pipe — plays weird dirges outside the hut of the deceased, but 
does nob accompany the funeral party to the grave. The 
body is carried on a bamboo stretcher, lying on a mat, and 
covered over with a cloth and mat. As it leaves the hut, 
rice is thrown over it. The funeral ceremony is simple in 
the extreme. The corpse is laid in the grave on a mat in 
the recumbent posture with head towards the east, and 
covered over with a mat and leaves. The grave is then 
filled in with earth. No stone, or sepulchral n^onument of 
any kind, is erected, to indicate the spot. Two years after 
death a memorial festival, called karrumanthram, is held, at 
which the Kadirs are invited to a feast with drinks and a 
dance. The Kadir believes that the dead go to heaven, which 
is up in the sky, but has no views as to what sort of place 
it is, as there is no one who can tell him. He is, in a mild 
way, a philosopher. 

On a certain Monday in the months of A.di and Avani 
(July-September) the Kadirs observe a festival called nombu, 
during which a feast is held, after they have bathed and 
anointed themselves with oil. It was, they say, observed 
by their ancestors, but they have no definite tradition as to 
its origin or significance. 

Turning now to the characteristics of the Kadirs. They 
belong to the curly-haired gentes dolichocephalse orthog- 
nathse of Eetzius, which, being translated, signifies that 
they are long-headed people with the upper jaw straight 
when viewed in profile, and have no resemblance to the 
prognathous (prominent-jawed) and woolly-haired Negro. 
According to Mr. Bensley " the Kadir has an air of calm 
dignity, which leads one to suppose that he had some reason 
for having a more exalted opinion of himself than that 
entertained for him by the outside world. A forest ofiicer 
of a philanthropic turn had a very high opinion of the 
sturdy independence and blunt honesty of the Kadir, but he 
once came unexpectedly round a corner, to find two of them 
exploring the contents of his portmanteau, and subsequent 
search revealed that they had abstracted a pair of scissors, 
a comb, and a looking-glass." " The Kadirs,'' Mr. Nichol- 
son wi*ites* ^' are, as a rule, rather short in stature and deep- 
chested, like most mountaineers ; and, like many true 
mountaineers, they rarely walk with a straight leg. Hence 
their thigh muscles are often abnormally developed at the 

* '* Manual of the Coimbatore District.' 



PL. XXXI. 




KADIR GIRL. 



143 



expense of those of the calf. Hence, too, in part, their 
dislike to walking long distances on level ground, thougli 
their objection, mentioned by Colonel Douglas Hamilton, 
to carrying loads in the plains is deeper rooted than that 
arising from mere physical disability. This objection is 
mainly because they are rather a timid race, and never feel 
safe out of the forests. They have also often affirmed that 
the low-country air is very trying to them.'^ As a matter 
of fact, they very_ rarely go down to the plains, even as far 
as the village of Anaimalai, only fifteen miles distant from 
Mount Stuart. One woman, whom I saw, had, however, 
been as far as Palghat by railway from Coimbatore, and 
had returned thence very much up-to-date in the matter of 
jewelry and the latest barbarity in imported piece-good 
saris. 

With the chest-girth of the Kadirs, as well as their 
general muscular development, I was very much impressed ; 
and the following comparative series of figures shows that, 
so far as wind is concerned, they would, like other jungle 
tribes of short stature, be valuable camp-followers in a 
mountaineering expedition. 







Average 


Average 


i Average 






height. 


chest. 


chest 


- 




CM. 


CM. 


relative to 
stature 100. 


Paniyans 


, , 


. 157-4 


81-5 


51-g 


Kadirs 


• • 


. 157-7 


80-5 


51-4 


Kurumbas . . 


, , 


. 157-5 


79-2 


50-3 


Tamil Pariahs 


, , 


.. 162-1 


79-3 


48-9 


Eurasians (poorer 


classes) 


. 166-6 


791 


47-7 



The most interesting custom, which prevails among the 
Kadirs, and among them alone, so far as I know, of the 
entire population of the Indian peninsula, is that of chipping 
all or some of the incisor teeth, both upper and lower, into 
the form of a sharp-pointed, but not serrated cone. The 
operation, which is performed with a chisel or bill-hook and 
file by members of the tribe skilled thereat, on boys at 
the age of eighteen, and girls at the age of ten or there- 
abouts, has been thus described : " The girl to be operated 
on lies down, and places her head against a female friend, 
who holds her head firmly. A third woman takes a sharp- 
ened bill-hook, and chips away the teeth till they are shaded 
to a point, the girl operated on writhing and groaniog with 
the pain. After the operation she looks dazed, and in a 



144 

very few hours the face begins to swell. Swelling and pain 
last for a day or two, accompanied by severe headache." 
Whether this practice is one which the Kadir has hit on 
spontaneously in comparatively modern times, or whether 
it is a relic of a custom resorted to by their ancestors of 
long ago, which remains as a stray survival of a custom 
once more widely practised among the remote inhabitants 
of Southern India, cannot be definitely asserted, though I 
incline to the latter view. Let us, however, see from the 
available literature on the subject what is the present-day 
geographical distribution of the practice of tooth chipping 
or filing, as a possible clue to the source from which it 
was derived. In 'Anthropological Notes and Queries ' it 
is stated that '' it is chiefly in Africa that the custom of 
deforming the teeth is practised ; and, as different modes of 
doing it prevail among difi'erent tribes, the characters 
afforded in this way will probably be found of considerable 
ethnographical importance. The practice appears in general 
to be limited to the front or incisor teeth, and consists 
either in extracting, or, more usually perhaps, in breaking 
off one or more of them, or of filing them either to a sharp 
single point, or in serrate fashion. '■* Westermarck^ in- 
forms us that, when the age of puberty draws near, " in 
several parts of Africa and Australia they knock out some 
teeth, knowing that they would otherv/ise run the risk of 
being refused on account of ugliness. Mr. (^rawfurd tells 
us that, in the Malay Archipelago, the practice of filing and 
blackening the teeth is a necessary prelude to marriage, the 
common way of expressing the fact that a girl has arrived 
at puberty being that ' she has had her teeth filed,^ and, 
with reference to some of the Natives of the Congo countries, 
Tuokey says that the two upper front teeth are filed by the 
men, so as to make a large opening, and scars are raised on 
the skin, both being intended by the men as ornamental, 
and principally done with the idea of rendering themselves 
agreeable to the women.'^ Further, Darwin writes ^ "The 
Natives of the Upper Nile knock out the four front teeth, 
saying that they do not wish to resemble brutes. Further 
south, the Batokas knock out only the two upper incisors, 
which, as Livingstone remarks, gives the face a hideous 
appearance; but these people think the presence of the 
incisors most unsightly, and, on beholding some Europeans, 
cried out 'Look at the great teeth' ! In parts of Africa 

^ ' Hiytory of Human Marriage.' ^ ' Descent of Man,' 



145 

and the Malay Archipelago tlie Natives file the incisors into 
points like a saw, or pierce them with holes, into which 
they insert studs.'"* I have somewhere read that the prac- 
tice of tooth-filing is resorted to, not for ornament or as a 
means of sexual attraction, but that the Natives may not 
degrade themselves by using all their teeth in eating like 
a cow. Be its origin what it may among the Kadirs^ I 
cannot but think that the geographical distribution of the 
practice of tooth chipping, of the use of the boomerang, 
and the custom of dilating the lobes of the ears, are import- 
ant links of evidence in connection with the Dravidian 
problem^ which is discussed later on. 

A friendly old woman, with huge discs in the widely 
dilated lobes of the ears, and a bamboo five-pronged comb 
in her back-hair, who acted as spokesman on the occasion 
of a visit to a charmingly situated settlement in a jungle of 
magnificent bamboos by the side of a mountain stream, 
pointed out to me, with conscious pride, that the huts 
were largely constructed by the females, while the men 
worked for the sircar (Government). The females also carry 
water from the streams, collect fire-wood, dig up edible 
roots, and carry out the sundry household duties of a house- 
wife. Both men and women are clever at plaiting 
bamboo baskets, necklets, etc. I was told one morning by 
a Kadir man, whom I met on the road, as an important 
item of news, that the women in his settlement were very 
busy dressing to come and see me — an event as important 
to them as the dressing of a debutante for presentation at 
the Court of St James'. They eventually turned up without 
their husbands, and evidently regarded my methods as a 
huge joke organised for the amusement of themselves and 
their children. The hair was neatly parted, anointed with a 
liberal application of cocoanut oil, and decked with wild 
flowers. Beauty spots and lines had been painted with 
coal-tar dyes on the forehead, and turmeric powder freely 
sprinkled over the top of the heads of the married women. 
Some had even discarded the ragged and dirty cotton cloth 
of every-day life in favour of a colour-printed imported 
sdri. One bright, good-looking young woman, who had 
already been through the measuring ordeal, acted as an 
efficient lady-help in coaching the novices in the assumption 
of the correct positions- She very readily grasped the 
situation, and was manifestly proud of her temporary eleva- 
tion to the rank of standard-bearer to Grovernment. The 
Kadir women, when they meet a European on the road^ 



146 

with their bodj-cloths wrapped round them in such a way 
as to expose the upper halves of their breasts, manifest 
symptoms of shyness and modesty, and stand aside with 
face averted so that they cannot see the stranger, on 
the same principle which prompts some Eastern women, if 
surprised when taking a bath, to turn the face, no farther 
concealment being necessary. Ideas of modesty, it has 
been said, are altogether relative and conventional, and it is 
not the feeling of shame that has given rise to the covering 
of the body, but the covering that has provoked the feeling 
of shame. This is well illustrated by the difference in the 
behaviour of the Native females of Malabar and the Tamil 
women of the East Coast. In Malabar the body -clothing of 
the Nayar, Tiyan, Cheruman females, etc., above the loins is 
exceedingly scanty. As Mr. Logan says : ^ " The women 
clothe themselves in a single white cloth of fine texture 
reaching from the waist to the knees, and occasionally, 
while abroad, they throw over the shoulder and bosom 
another similar cloth. But by custom the Nayar women go 
uncovered from the waist. Upper garments indicate lower 
caste, or sometimes, by a strange reversal of Western notions, 
immodesty. ^^ The observant Abbe Dubois noticed that, " of 
all the women in India, it is especially the courtesans (danc- 
ing-girls or deva-dasis) who are the most decently clothed, 
as experience has no doubt taught them that for a woman to 
display her charms damps sensual ardour instead of exciting 
it, and that the imagination is more easily captivated than 
the eye.^^ 

A Tamil woman, young or old and wizen, going alongf 
the high road, with breasts partially uncovered by her ample 
body-cloth, will, when she sees a European coming, pull 
the cloth over them from a feeling of shame in the 
presence of the foreigner, which is absent in the presence 
of her fellow country-men. So, too, a Tamil woman, when 
undergoing the process of measurement at my hands, is 
most particular in arranging her upper garment so as to 
conceal her breasts, whereas a Malabar woman has no hesi- 
tation in appearing with breasts completely exposed, or in 
throwing off the slender wrapper which may cover her 
shoulders, and considers the exposure in no way immodest. 
I have heard that the women of a tribe (E think in South 
Oanara), whose leafy clothing is, in their home surroundings, 
reduced to slender proportions, when they come into a town, 

7 ' Manual of Malabar.' 



147 

walk in Indian file, concealing their nakedness hy means of 
a series of clotlis stitched together^ spread out between them 
and extending down the line. A friend, bartering for the 
two bead necklets, which constituted the full-dress of a 
jungle girl, had no difficulty in securing one, but no bribe 
would tempt her to part with the second^ as, in its absence, 
she would be naked. 

The chief characteristics of the Kadirs, their system of 
personal adornment, etc., will be gathered from the following 
illustrative cases. It may be noted that the Kadirs do not 
practise tattooing. 

Man, aet. 25. Height 157-4 cm. Nasal index 102-3. 
Chest girth 86-4 cm. Abundant curly hair, parted in the 
middle line, tied with string in a bunch (kudumi) behind, 
and saturated with cocoanut oil. Skin dark-brown. Slight 
moustache. Hair feebly developed on trunk and extre- 
mities. Upper and lower incisor teeth chipped. Only 
stump remaining of one tooth, which was broken during the 
operation. Dirty plain cotton loin-cloth. Two brass orna- 
ments in lobe of each ear. Carries bill-hook and pegs for 
tree-climbing, hanging by fibre rope from left loin. 

Man, set. 30. Hair long and wavy, tied in a loose bunch 
behind. Three brass ornaments in lobe of each ear. Brass 
rings on right ring and little fingers. 

Man, set. 27. White turban. Grlass bead necklet. Hair 
clipped short in front in observance of a death ceremony. 

Man, get. 23. Skin as dark as that of a typical Irula of 
the Nilgiris. Unparted and untrimmed mass of long curly 
hair. V^ery sturdy build. Hard, well developed muscles. 
Height 156-2 cm. Chest girth 87*5 cm. Shoulders 42 cm. 
Nasal index 100. 

Man, set. 30. Slight billy-goat beard as well as mous- 
tache (unusual). Steel bangle on left upper arm. 
Man, set. 28. Steel ring on left second toe. 

Boy, set. 18. Hair worn in a curly fringe in front, plas- 
tered down on top with cocoanut oil, and tied in a compact 
bunch behind. Brass, bead, and plaited grass necklets. 
Brass ornament in lobe of each ear. Brass ring with orna- 
ment pendent from link-chain in helix of each ear. 

It is sometimes difficult to distinguish adolescent youths, 
with curly fringe, breasts concealed by a cotton cloth, and 
necklets, from girls. And I was myself several times caught 
in an erroneous diagnosis of sex. 



148 

Boy, set. 15 — 16. Plaited grass necklet, and necklet of 
big brass and glass beads. Brass ring with pendent orna- 
ment in helix of left ear. Brass ornament in left lobe. 
Plug of wood in right nostril. 

Boy, set. 15 — 16. Mass of long curly hair. Flat bridge 
to nose. Upper and lower lips conspicuously everted (cf, 
Plate XXVI). Brass and glass bead ornament in right helix. 
Three brass ornaments, and brase wire with pendent orna- 
ments in left helix. Two brass ornaments in left lobe. 
Plaited grass necklet. Brass bangle on left wrist. 

Boy, £et. 5 — 6. Clean-shaved on top and front of head. 
Wooden plug in lobe of each ear. Four upper incisor teeth 
chipped. 

Boy, eet. 5. Hair shaved on top and front of head, tied 
in a bunch behind. Chundm (lime) smeared over forehead 
for ornament. Brass ring in lobe of each ear. Steel ring on 
right wrist. 

Boy, set. 5. Hair a mass of short curls without parting. 

Infant in arms. Head shaved all over, except frontal 
lock. Bead necklace with dried tortoise foot pendent to 
ward off fever. 

Infant in arms. String round neck with wooden imita- 
tion of tiger^s claw to act as a charm. 

Infant in arms. Steel necklet with jungle-worn croco- 
dile tooth pendant, mimicking a phallic emblem, and also 
supposed to ward off attacks from a mythical water ele- 
phant, which is believed to live in the mountain streams. 

Infant in arms. Glass bead necklets. Steel bangle on 
right upper arm. Steel wire round left ankle. 

Infant in arms. Necklet made of the seeds of Coix 
lachryma (Job^s tears) strung together. 

Woman, set. 23. Height 142-8 cm. Nasal index 94-6. 
Dirty cotton body and loin cloths. Upper and lower incisor 
teeth chipped. Hair parted in middle, smoothed with 
cocoanut oil, and tied in a knot behind. Turmeric powder 
sprinkled on top of head (forbidden to unmarried girls and 
widows). Dark blue coal-tar dye streak in mid- frontal line 
and white spot on glabella. Brass and steel rings in right 
helix ; steel rings in left helix. Cajan roll in dilated lobe of 
each ear. String and bead necklets. Five steel bangles on 
right wrist ; three steel bangles on left wrist. 



149 

Woman, aet. 22. Lantana flowers in hair. White spot 
on glabella. Wooden plug in each helix. Brass ring in 
lobe of right ear. Plaited grass and bead necklets. 

Woman, set. 40. Thread round neck, with bases of 
porcupine quills pendant. 

Woman, set. 45. Bamboo comb, with ornamental geo- 
metric patterns scratched on it, worn in back hair and used 
for doing hair. Lobes of ears widely dilated, pendulous and 
as elastic as India-rubber. Length of slit in lobes 5'5 cm. 
Wears no ornaments, as she is a widow. 

Woman, set. 26, Turmeric powder on top of head. Blue 
and white beauty spots on glabella. Brass and bead orna- 
ment in septum of nose. Brass ornament in left nostril. 
Solid wooden disc in lobe of right ear ; cajan roll in left 
lobe. Wooden plug and brass pendant ornament in each 
helix. Brass and glass bead necklet with imitation Vene- 
tian sequins. Steel bangles on right upper arm and fore- 
arm. Steel and six armlets on left upper arm. Three steel 
armlets on left fore-arm. Spiral steel ring on right thumb 
and little finger, and left thumb. 

Girl, set. 4. Plug of wood in lobe of each ear. Griass 
bead necklets. Steel ring on right first finger. Brass 
bangle on left, wrist. 

Since writing the above account, I have come across the 
following note, relating to the Kadirs, by Captain Cotton, 
in the ' Madras Journal of Literature] and Science,' 1858. 
" These little dwarfish people,^' he says, " file their front 
teeth into points, to facilitate their eating the hardest roots. 
There is some nerve shown in this, and we may look with 
wonder and respect upon the exiled lords of the ancient 
land, when we see that^ rather than serve those who usurped 
the country, they chose to live where the food was beyond 
their natural powers, and could be eaten only by such a 
preparation of their teeth. It is possible that, in the absence 
of better arms, they reckoned upon these pointed teeth as 
weapons, in case their conquerors should follow them to 
their mountain home.'' 



150 

TABLE XXVII. 

SUMMARY OF MEASUREMENTS. 
KADIR MEN". 





Max. 


Min. 


Average. 


Height 


169-4 


148-6 


157-7 


Height, sitting 


85-4 


70-4 


80-3 
116-3 


Height, kneeling 


124 


109 


Height to gladiolus 


126-G 


109-2 


117-4 


Span of arms 


184 


158-8 


168-8 
80-5 
10-7 


Chest 


87-5 


74-5 


Middle finger to patella 


14-4 


6-8 


Shoulders 


41-9 


36-5 


38-8 


Cubit 


49-1 


41-8 
16-7 


45-1 

17-8 

7-5 

24-1 


Hand, length 

Hand, breadth 


19-5 


8-2 
25-5 


7 
22-5 


Hips ... 


Foot, length 


26-3 


21'9 


23-8 
8-3 


Foot, breadth 


9-1 
19-4 
13-8 


7-4 


Cephalic length 


17-2 
12-5 


18-4 
13-4 


Cephalic breadth 


Cephalic index 


80 


69-1 


72-9 
10 


Bigoniao >. 


11 


9-1 


Bizygomatio 


13-6 


12 


12-9 


Maxillo-zygomatic index 


84-6 


70-7 


77-4 


Nasalheight 


4-8 


3-8 


4-3 


Nasal breadth 


4-5 


3-2 


3-9 


Nasal index 


115-4 


72-9 


89-8 



Note. — In this and the following tables the measurements are in 
centimetres. 



Ul 



TABLE XXVIII. 



SUMMARY OF MEASUREMENTS. 
KADIR WOMEN. 





Max. 


Min. 


Average. 


Height 


149 


133 


143 


Heigfht, sitting 


78-4 
110-1 
159 


69 


73-3 


Height, kneeling 


98-8 
138-8 


106-2 


Span of arms 


149-8 


Shoulders ... 


36-3 
16-8 


30-6 
. 147 


33-8 
16-1 


Hand, length 


Hand, breadth 


6-9 


5-9 
19-2 


6-6 


Foot, length 


221 


20-8 


Foot, breadth 


7-6 
18 
13-4 


6-1 


7 


Cephalic length 


15-8 
12-4 
71-6 


17-3 
12-8 

74-2 
9-3 


Cephalic breadth 


Cephalic index 


79-1 


Eigoniac 


10 


8-8 


Bizygomatic ... ... ... 


12-8 
83-3 


11-4 


12 


Maxillo-zygomatic index 


72-6 


77 


Nasal height 


4-4 


3-2 


3-9 


Nasal breadth 


3-9 


3-2 


3-4 


Nasal index 


100 


77-3 


88 



152 



MALAIALIS OF THE SALEM DISTRICT. 



Except from a climatic point of view, I have no pleasur- 
able recollections of my sojourn on two occasions among 
the Malaialis, who dwell on the summit and slopes of the 
Shevaroy hills, and earn their living hy cultivating grain 
and working on coffee estates. Suspicious and super- 
stitious to a degree, they openly expressed their fear that I 
was the dreaded settlement officer, and had come to take 
possession of their lands in the name of tlie Grovernment, 
and transport them, with their wives and families, to the 
penal settlement in the Andaman Islands. When T was 
engaged in the innocent occupation of photographing a 
village, my camera was mistaken for a surveying instru- 
ment, and a mild protest raised. Mistaking my motive,, they 
objected strongly to being examined as to their " manners 
and customs/'' Many of them, while willing to part with 
their ornaments of the baser metals, were loth to sell or 
let me examine their gold and silver jewelry, from fear lest 
I should use it officially as evidence of their too prosperous 
condition. Only with great difficulty, and through the 
kindly assistance of niy planter friends, was I enabled to 
scrape together fifty men for measurement. One man, 
indeed, told me to my face that he would rather have his 
throat cut than submit to the measuring operations, and 
fled precipitately from my bed-room (doing duty as an 
impromptu research laboratory), which was pervaded with 
a distinct Malaiali aroma. The women stolidly refused to 
entrust themselves in my hands. Nor would they bring 
their children (unwashed specimens of humanity) to me, 
lest they should fall sick under the influence of my mild, 
but to them evil eye. And it was only through the inter- 
vention of the Native revenue officer (tahsildar) that I was 
enabled to snap the group represented in plate XXXII, just 
as a thunder-storm burst over the throng collected at the 
weekly shandy (market). 

In the account which follows I am, except as regards 
physical records, largely indebted to Mr. H. LeFanu's 
admirable and at times amusing '^Manual of the Salem 
District,^ and to the answers to a series of ethnographic 



153 

questions, wliich had been recently circulated through the 
Collector of the district. 

The word Malaiali denotes inhabitant of the hills 
(malai =:hill or mountain). The Malaialis have not,however, 
like the Todas of the Nilgiris, any claim to be considered 
as an ancient hill tribe, but are a Tamil-speaking people, 
who migrated from the plains to the hills in comparatively 
recent times. As a shrewd, but unscientific observer put 
it concisely to me, they are Tamils of the plains with the 
addition of a kambli or blanket ; which kambli is a 
luxury denied to the females, but dues duty for males, 
young and old, in the triple capacity of great coat, water- 
proof, and blanket. According to tradition, the Malaialis 
originally belonged to the Yellala caste of cultivators, and 
emigrated from the sacred city of Kanchipuram (Conjee- 
veram) to the hills about ten generations ago, when 
Muhammadan rule was dominant in Southern India. 
When they left Kanchi, they took with them, according to 
their story, three brothers, of whom the eldest came to 
the Shevaroy hills, the second to the Kollimallais, and the 
youngest to the Pachaimallais (green hills), all in the Salem 
district. The Malaialis of the Shevaroys are called the 
Peria (big) Malaialis, those of the Kollimallais the Chinna 
(little) Malaialis. According to another version " the 
Malaiali deity Kariraman, finding himself uncomfortable at 
Kanchi, took up a new abode. Three of his followers, 
named Perianan, Naduvanan, and Chinnan (the eldest 
the middle-man, and the youngest) started with their 
families to follow him from Kanchi, and came to the Salem 
district, where they took different routes, Perianan going 
to the Shevaroys, Naduvanan to the Pachaimalais and 
Anjur hills, and Chinnan to Manjavadi." 

The Malaialis of the Shevaroy hills all have Groundan as 
their second name, which is universally used in hailing 
them. The first name is sometimes derived from a Hindu 
deity, and my notes record Mr. Black, Mr. Green, Mr, 
Little, Mr. Short, Mr. Large, and Mr. Big-nose. 

As regards the conditions under which the Malaialis 
hold land, I learn from the Manual that, in 1866, the 
Collector of the Salem district fixed an area around each 
village for the cultivation of the Malaialis exclusively, and, 
in view to prevent aggression on the part of the planters, 
had the boundaries of these areas surveyed and demarcated. 
This area is known as the "^ village green.'* With this 



154 

survey the old system of charging the Malaialis on ploughs 
and hoes appears to have been discontinued, and they are 
now charged at one rupee per acre on the extent of their 
holdings. The lands within the green are given under the 
ordinary darakhast ^ rules to the Malaialis, but outside it 
they are sold under the special waste land rules of 1863. 
In 1870 the Board of Revenue decided that, where the lands 
within the green are all occupied, and the Malaialis require 
more land for cultivation, land outside the limits of the 
green may be given them under the ordinary darakh^st 
rules. In 1871 it was discovered that the planters tried to 
get lands outside the green by making the Malaialis first 
apply for it, thereby evading the waste land rules. The 
Board then ordered that, if there was reason to suspect that 
a Malaiali was applying for lands outside the green on 
account of the planters_, the patta (deed of lease) might be 
refused. 

Subscribing vaguely to the Hindu religion, the Malai- 
alis, who believe that their progenitors wore the sacred 
thread, give a nominal allegiance to both Siva and Vishnu, 
as well as to a number of minor deities, and believe in the 
efficacy of a thread to ward off sickness and attacks by 
devils or evil spirits. ^' In the year 1852,^' Mr. LeFanu 
writes, ^' a searching enquiry into the traditions, customs, 
and origin of these Malaialis was made, and probably 
nothing more is to be ascertained. They then stated that 
' smearing the face with ashes indicates the religion of 
Shiva, and putting namam that of Vishnu, but that there 
is no difference between the two religions ; that, though 
Sivaratri sacred to Shiva, and Striramanavami and Goka* 
lashtami sacred to Vishnu, appear outwardly to denote a 
difference, there is really none.' Though they observe the 
Saturdays of the month Peratasi sacred to Vishnu, still 
worship is performed without reference to Vishnu or Shiva. 
They have, indeed, certain observances, which would seem 
to point to a division into Vaishnavas and Saivas, the 
existence of which they deny ; as for instance, some, out o£ 
respect to Shiva, abstain from sexual intercourse on Sundays 
and Mondays ; and others, for the sake of Vishnu, do the 
same on Fridays and Saturdays. So, too, offerings are made 
to Vishnu on Fridays and Saturdays, and to Shiva on 



^ Darakhast : application for land for purposes of cultivation j or bid 
at an auction • 



PL. XXXII. 




m 
f— ( 

<! 

<: 
<: 

o 
o 

O 



.*^ 



155 

Sundays and Mondays ; but they denied tlie existetice of 
sects among them." 

In April, 1896, I paid a visit to the picturesquely- 
situated village of Riliur, not far distant from the town of 
Yercaud, on the occasion of a religious festival. The vil- 
lagers were discovered, early in the morning, painting 
pseudo-sect-marks on their foreheads with blue and pink 
coal-tar dyes, with the assistance of hand looking-glasses of 
European manufacture purchased at the weekly market, 
and decorating their turbans acd ears with the leafy stems 
oi: Artemisia austriaca, var. orientalis, and hedge-roses. The 
scene of the ceremonial was in a neighbouring sacred grove 
of lofty forest trees, wherein were two hut temples, of 
which one contained images of the goddess Draupadi and 
eight minor deities, the other images of Perumal and his 
wife. All the gods and goddesses were represented by 
human figures of brass and clay. Two processional cars 
were gaily decorated with plantain leaves and flags, some 
made in Grermany. As the villagers arrived, they pros- 
trated themselves before the temples, and whiled away the 
time, till the serious business of the day began, in gossip- 
ing with their friends, and partaking of light refreshment 
purchased from the fruit and sweet- meat sellers, who were 
doing a brisk trade. At 10 a.m. the proceedings were 
enlivened by a band of music, which played at intervals 
throughout the performance, and the gods were decorated 
with flowers and jewelry. An hour later, puja (worship) 
was done to the stone image of the god Vignaswaram, 
in the form of a human figure, within a small shrine 
built of slabs of rock. Before this idol cooked rice was 
ofiered, and camphor burnt. Then plantain stems, with 
leaves, were tied to a tree in the vicinity of the tem- 
ples, and cooked rice and cocoanuts placed beneath the 
tree. A man holding a sword^ issued forth, and, in unison 
with the collected assemblage, screamed out '* Govinda, 
Grovinda '^ (the name of their god). The plantain stems 
were next removed from the tree, carried in procession 
with musical honours, and placed before the threshold 
of one of the temples. Then some men appeared on the 
scene to the cry of '' Govinda/^ bearing in one hand 
a. light, and ringing a bell held in the other. Holy water 
was sprinkled over the plantain stems, and ptija done to the 
god Perumal by offering samai (grain) and burning cam- 
phor. Outside one of the temples a cloth was spread on 



166 

the ground, and the images of Draupadi and the eight minor 
deities placed thereon. From the other temple Perumal 
and hi8 wife were brought forth in state, and placed on the 
two cars. A yellow powder was distributed among the 
crowd, and smeared over the face. A cocoanut was broken, 
and camphor burnt before Perumal. Then all the gods, 
followed by the spectators_, were carried in procession round 
the grove, and a man, becoming inspired and seized with a 
fine religious frenzy, waved a sword wildly around him, but 
with due respect for his own bodily safety, and pointed it in 
a threatening manner at the crowd. Asked, as an oracle, 
whether the omens were propitious to the village, he gave 
vent to the oracular (and true) response that for three years 
there would be a scarcity of rain, and that there would be 
famine in the land, and consequent suffering. This per- 
formance concluded, a bamboo pole was erected, bearing a 
pulley at the top, with which cocoanuts and plantains were 
connected by a string. By means of this string the fruits . 
were alternately raised and lowered, and men, armed with 
sticks, tried to hit them, while turmeric water was dashed 
in their faces just as they were on the point of striking. 
The fruits, being at last successfully hit, were received as a 
prize by the winner. The gods were then taken back to 
their temples, and three men, overcome by a mock convul- 
sive seizure, were brought to their senses by stripes on the 
back administered with a rope by the pujari (officiating 
priest). A sheep being produced, mantrams (prayers) were 
recited over it. The pujari, going to a pool close by, bathed, 
and smeared turmeric powder over his face. A pretence 
was made to cut the sheep's throat, and blood drawn with 
a knife. The pujari, after sucking the blood, returned to 
the pool and indulged in a ceremonial ablution, while the 
unhappy sheep was escorted to the village, and eventually 
eaten at a banquet by the villagers and their guests. 

To Mr. W. Mahon Daly I am indebted for the follow- 
ing account of a Malaiali bull dance, at which he was pre- 
sent as an eye witness. ^^ It is the custom on the Shevaroy 
hills, as well as in the plains, to have a bull dance after the 
pongul festival, and I had the pleasure of witnessing one 
in a Malaiali village. It was held in an open enclosure 
called the munthay. This piece of land adjoins the village, 
and faces the Mariamma (goddess of small-pox) shrine, and 
is the place of resort on festive occasions. The village 
panchayats (councils), marriages, and other ceremonies are 



157 

held here. On our arrival, we were courteously invited to 
sit under a wide spreading fig-tree. The bull dance would 
literally mean a bull dancing, but I give the translation of 
the Tamil ' yerothoo-attum ' , the wordattum meaning dance. 
This is a sport which is much in vogue among the Malaialis, 
and is celebrated with much eclat immediately after pongul, 
this being the principal festival observed by them. No 
doubt they have received the custom from those in the 
plains. A. shooting excursion follows as the next sport, 
and, if they be so fortunate as to hunt down a wild boar 
or deer, or any big game, a second bull dance is got up. 

" We were just in time to see the tamasha (spectacle). 
The munthay was becoming crowded, a regular influx of 
spectators, mostly women arrayed in their best cloths, 
coming in from the neighbouring villages. These were 
marshalled in a circle round the munthay, all standing. I 
was told that they were not invited, but that it was cus- 
tomary for them to pour in of their own accord when any 
sports or ceremonial took place in a village ; and the in- 
habitants of the particular village were prepared to expect 
a large company, whom they fed on such occasions. After 
the company had collected, drums were beaten, and the 
long brass bugles were blown ; and, just at this juncture, 
we saw an elderly Malaiali bring from his hut a coil of rope 
made of leather, and hand it over to the pujari or priest in 
charge of the temple. The latter placed it in front of the 
shrine, worshipped it thrice, some of the villagers follow- 
ing suit, and, after offering incense, delivered it to a few 
respectable village men, who in turn made it over to a lot 
of Malaiali men, whose business it was to attach it to the 
bulls. This rope the oldest inhabitant of the village had 
the right to keep. The bulls had been previously selected, 
and penned alongside of the munthay, from which they 
were brought one by one, and tied with the rope, leaving an 
equal length on either side. The rope being fixed on, the 
bull was brought to the munthay, held on both sides by any 
number who were willing, or as many as the rope would 
permit. More than fifteen on either side held on to a bull, 
which was far too many, for the animal had not the slight- 
est chance of making a dart or plunge at the man in front, 
who was trying to provoke it by using a long bamboo with 
a skin attached to the end. When the bull was timid, and 
avoided his persecutors, he was hissed and hooted by those 
behind, and, if these modes of provocation failed to rousQ 



158 

his anger^, he was simply dragged to and fro by main force, 
and let loose when his strength was almost exhausted. A 
dozen or more bulls are taken up and down the munthay, 
and the tamasha is over. When the munthay happens to 
have a slope, the Malaialis have very little control over the 
bull, and, in some instances, I have seen them actually 
dragged headlong to the ground at the expense of a few 
damaged heads. The spectators, and all the estate coolies 
who were present, were fed that night, and slept in the 
village. 

" If a death occurs in the village a few days before the 
festival, J am told that the dance is postponed for a week. 
This certainly, as far as I know, is not the custom in the 
plaius. '' 

A very tame affair is this bull dance, when compared 
with the buffalo ^ drive ^ at a To da funeral ^, or the bull 
baiting (jellikattu) practised chiefly by the Maravan and 
kindred castes, which is thus graphically described by 
Mr. J. H. Nelson: ^ " This is a game worthy of a bold and 
free people, and it is to be regretted that certain Collectors 
should have discouraged it under the idea that it was some- 
what dangerous. The jellikattu is conducted in the follow- 
ing manner : — On a certain day large crowds of people, 
chiefly males, assemble together in the morning in some ex- 
tensive open place, the dry bed of a river perhaps, or of a tank 
(pond), and many of them may be seen leading ploughing 
bullocks, of which the sleek bodies, and rather wicked eyes, 
afibrd clear evidence of the extra diet they have received 
for some days in anticipation of the great event. The 
owners of these animals soon begin to brag of their strength 
and speed, and to challenge all and any to catch and hold 
them : and in a short time one of the beasts is selected to 
open the day^s proceedings. A new cloth is made fast 
round his horns^ to be the prize of his captor, and he is 
then led out into the middle of the arena by his owner, and 
there left to himself, surrounded by a throng of shouting 
and excited strangers. Unaccustomed to this sort of treat- 
ment, and excited by the gestures of those who have under- 
taken to catch him, the bullock usually lowers his head at 
once, and charges wildly into the midst of the crowd, who 
nimbly run off on either side to make way for him. His 

2 Vide Bull. No. IV, 1896. 

* ' Manual of the Madura Diatrict/ 1868, 



159 

speed being much greater than that of the men, he soon 
overtakes one of his enemies and savagely makes at him, 
to toss him. Upon this the man drops on the sand like 
Qi stone, and the bullock, instead of goring him, leaps over 
his body, and rushes after another. The second man 
drops in his turn, and is passed like the first ; and, after 
repeating this operation several times, the beast either 
succeeds in breaking the ring and galloping off to his 
village, charging every person he meets on the way, or is at 
last caught, and held by the most vigorous of his pursuers. 
Strange as it may seem, the bullocks never by any chance 
toss or gore any one who throws himself down on their 
approach ; and the only danger arises from their accident- 
ally reaching, unseen and unheard, some one who remains 
standing. 

'^ After the first two or three animals have been let loose 
one after the other, two or three, or even half a dozen, are 
let loose at a time, and the scene becomes wildly exciting. 
The crowd sways violently to and fro in various directions in 
frantic efforts to escape being knocked over ; the air is 
filled with shouts, screams and laughter, and the bullocks 
thunder over the plain as fiercely as if blood and slaughter 
were their sole occupation. In this way perhaps two or 
three hundred animals are run in the course of the day ; and, 
when all go home towards evenings a few cuts and bruises, 
borne with the utmost cheerfulness, are the only evil results 
of an amusement which requires great courage and agility 
on the part of the competitors for the prizes — that is for 
the cloths and other things tied to the bullocks^ horns — and 
not a little on the part of the mere by-standers. The only 
time I saw this sport (from a place of safety) I was highly 
delighted with the entertainment, and no accident occurred 
to mar my pleasure. One man, indeed, was slightly wounded 
in the buttock : but he was quite able to walk, and seemed 
to be as happy as his friend. ^^ 

To return to the Malaialis. The man of highest rank is 
the guru, who is invited to settle disputes in villages, to 
which he comes, on pony-back or on foot, with an umbrella 
over him, and accompanied by music. The office of guru 
is hereditary, and, when he dies, his son succeeds him, 
unless he is a minor, in which case the brother of the 
deceased man steps into his shoes. If, in sweeping the hut, 
the broom touches any one, or when a Malaiali has been 
kicked by a European or released from prison, he must b^ 



160 

received back into his caste. For this purpose he goes to 
the guru, who takes him to the temploj where a screen is put 
up between the guru and the applicant for restoration of 
caste privileges. Holj water is dedicated to the swarai 
(Grod) bj the guru, and a portion thereof drunk by the man, 
who prostrates himself before the guru, and subsequently 
gives a feast of pork, mutton, and other delicacies. The 
Malaialis, it may be noted, will eat sheep, pigs, fowls, 
various birds, and black monkeys. 

Each village has its own headman, an honorary appoint- 
ment, carrying with it the privilege of an extra share of the 
good things, when a feast is being held. A kangani is 
appointed to do duty under the headman, and receives 
annually from every hut two ballams of grain. When 
disputes occur, e.g.^ between two brothers regarding a 
woman or partition of property, the headman summons a 
panchayat (village council), which has the power to inflict 
fines in money, sheep, etc., according to the gravity of the 
oifence. For every group of ten villages there is a patta- 
karam (head of a division), who is expected to attend on the 
occasion of marriages and car festivals. A bridegroom has 
to give him eight days before his marriage a rupee, a 
packet of betel-nut, and half a measure of nuts. Serving 
under the pattakaram is the mania keeran, whose duty it is 
to give notice of a marriage to the ten villagers, and to 
summon the villagers thereto. Among the Peria Malaialis 
weddings take place on Wednesday and Thursday in the 
month Chittaray (April-May). For eight days before the 
ceremony, bride and bridegroom must anoint themselves 
with turmeric paste. 

In the auspicious month of April, 1898, on the receipt of 
news of a wedding in a distant village, I proceeded thither 
through coffee estates rich with white flowers bursting into 
blossom under the grateful influence of copious thunder- 
showers. En route, a good view was obtained of the '^ Golden 
Horn," an overhanging rock with a drop of 1,000 feet, 
down which the Malaialis swing themselves in search for 
honey. On the track through the jungle a rock, known 
from the fancied resemblance of the holes produced by 
■weathering to hoof-marks, as the kudre panji (horse's foot- 
prints), was passed. Concerning this rock the legend 
runs that a horse jumped on to it at one leap from the top 
of the Shivarayan hill, and at the next leap into the plains 
at the foot of the hills. The village^ which was to be the 



161 

scene of the festivities, was, like other Malaiali villages, 
made up of detached bee-hive hats of bamboo, thatched with 
paim-leaves and grass, and containiag a central room 
surrounded by a verandah, — the home of pigs, goats, and 
fowls. Other huts, of similar bee-hive shape, but smaller, 
were used as store-houses for the grain collected at the 
harvest season. These grain-stores have no entrance, and 
the thatched roof has to be removed to take out the gfrain 
for use. Tiled roofs, such as are common in the Badaga 
villages on the Nilgiris, are forbidden, as their use would 
be an innovation, which would excite the anger of the 
Malaiali gods. Huts built on piles contain the flocks, 
which, during the day, are herded in pens that are remov- 
able, and, by moving these pens from one place to another, 
the villagers manage to get the different parts of their fields 
mauared. Eound the whole village a low wall usually runs, 
and, close by, are the cofFeOj tobacco, and other cultivated 
crops. Outside the village, beneath a lofty tree, was a 
small stone shrine, capped with a stone slab, wherein were 
stacked a number of neolithic celts, which the Malaialis 
reverence as thunder-bolts fallen from heaven. On my 
arrival at the village, I learned that the bride was not 
expected to arrive from her own village till long after dark. 
" She has,^' said the headman, ^' a stomach, which must be 
fed before she comes here.^' I was, however, presented to 
the youthful and anxious bridegroom, who was already 
dressed up in his marriage finery, and stripped before the 
assembled villagers, in order that I might record his 
wedding garments. His entire body was enshrouded in a 
new Salem cotton cloth with silk-woven border, and a clean 
white turban and coloured cotton languti completed the 
clothing. For jewelry he wore gold ornaments in each 
helix, and a marriage hoop ornament of gold encircling 
each ear, a heavy silver necklet, five rows of silver armlets 
on the right upper arm, and a silver chain round his hips. 
Fingers and toes were decorated with silver rings. The 
neck was smeared with chunam (lime), and the chest and 
abdomen daubed with symbolical marks in turmeric. 
Unfortunately, the arrival of a case of cholera in the village 
gave rise to a hitch in the proceedings, and I had to rely 
on native evidence for details of the marriage ceremonial. 
On the first day, the bridegroom, accompanied by his 
relations, takes the modest dowry of grain and money 
(usually five rupees) to the bride^s village, and arranges for 
the performance of the nalungoo ceremony on the following 



162 

day. If the bride and bridegroom belong to the same 
village, this ceremony is performed by the pair seated on 
a cot. Otherwise it is performed by each separately. The 
elders of the village take a few drops of castor-oil, and rub 
it into the heads of the bride and bridegroom ; afterwards 
washing the oil off with poonac and alum water. One of 
the elders then dips betel-leaves and arugum-pillu (Cynodon 
Badyloii) in milk, and with them describe a circle round 
the heads of the young couple, who do obeisance by bowing 
their heads. The proceedings wind up with a feast of pork 
and other luxuries. On the following day the ceremony of 
tying the tali (marriage emblem) round the bride^s neck is 
performed. The bride, escorted by her party, comes to the 
bridegroom^s village, and remains outside it, while the 
bridegroom brings a light, a new mat, and three bundles of 
betel-nut and half a measure of nuts, which are distributed 
among the crowd. The happy pair then enter the village, 
accompanied by music. Beneath a pandal there is a stone, 
representing the god, marked with the namam, and 
decorated with burning lamps and painted earthen pots. 
Before this stone the bride and bridegroom seat themselves 
in the presence of the guru, who is seated on a raised dais. 
Flowers are distributed among the wedding guests, and the 
tali, made of gold, is tied round the bride^s neck. This 
done, the feet of both bride and bridegroom are washed 
with alum water, and presents of small coin received. The 
contracting parties then walk three times round the stone, 
before which they prostrate themselves, and receive the 
blessing of the assembled elders. The ceremony concluded, 
they go round the village, riding on the same pony. The 
proceedings again terminate with a feast. I gather that 
the bride lives apart from her husband for eleven or fifteen 
days, during which time he is permitted to visit her at meal 
times, with the object, as my interpreter expressed it, of 
*' finding out if the bride loves her husband or not. If she 
does not love bim, she is advised by the guru and head man 
to do so, because there are many cases in which the girls, 
after marriage, if they are matured, go away with other 
Malaialis, If this matter comes to the notice of the guru, 
she says that she does not like to live with him. After 
enquiry, the husband is permitted to marry another girl.'' 

A curious custom prevailing among the Malaialis of the 
Kollimallais, and illustrating the Hindu love of offspring, 
is thus referred to by Mr. LeFanu : " The sons^ when mere 



163 

cliildreii, are married to mature females, and the father-in- 
law of the bride assumes the performance of the procreative 
function, thus assuriug for himself and bis sou a descendant 
to take them out of ' Put. ' When the putative father 
comes of age, and in their turn his wife^s male offspring are* 
married, he performs for them the same office which his 
father did for him. Thus, not onlj is the religious idea 
involved in the words Putra and Kumaran^ carried out, 
but also the premature strain on the generative faculties, 
which this tradition entails, is avoided. The accommodation 
is reciprocal, and there is something on physiological 
grounds to recommend it.^^ Concerning this custom the 
Rev. H. N. Hutchinson writes as follows : ^ "A man who 
has young sons, mere children, takes new wives for himself, 
who are, however, called his sons^ wives, and the children 
they bear to him are called his sons' children, and so it 
goes on from one generation to another. This appears to 
be a relic of what is called the matriarchal system, which 
still prevails in various countries, as once in India. ^^ Widow 
re-marriage among the Peria Malaialis is, I am informed, 
forbidden, though widows are permitted to contract irregular 
alliances. But, writing concerning the Malaialis of the 
Dharmapuri taluk (division) of the Salem district, Mr. 
LeFanu states that : " It is almost imperative on a widow to 
marry again. Even at eighty years of age, a widow is not 
exempted from this rule, which nothing but the most per- 
sistent obstinacy on her part can evade. It is said that, in 
case a widow be not re-married at once, the Pattakar sends 
for her to his own house, to avoid which the women consent 
to re-enter the state of bondage.^ ^ Of the marriage customs 
of the Malaialis of the Javadi hills the same author writes 
that ''these hills are inhabited by Malaialis, who style 
themselves Vellalars and Pachai Yellalars, the latter being 
distinguished by the fact that their females are not allowed 
to tattoo themselves, or tie their hair in the knot called 
'kondai\ The two classes do not intermarry. In their 
marriage ceremonies they dispense with the service of a 

* Putra means literally **' one who saves from put," a hell into "wliicli 
those who have not produced a son fall. Hindus believe that a son can, 
by the performance of certain rites and ceremonies, save the souls of his 
ancestors from this place of torture. Hence the a.nxiety of every Hindu 
to get married, and beget male offspring. Kumaran is the second stage 
in the life of an individual, which is divided into infancy, childhood, man- 
hood, and old age. 

' ' Mairiage Customs in many Lands,' 1897, 

SS 



164 

Brahman. Monday is the day chosen for the commence- 
ment of the ceremonj, and the tali is tied on the follow- 
ing Friday, the only essential being that the Monday and 
Friday concerned must not follow new moon days. They 
are indifferent about choosing a ' lakkinam ' (muhurtham 
or auspicious day) for the commencement of the marriage, 
or for tying the tali. Widows are allowed to re-marry. 
When a virgin or a widow has to be married, the selection 
of a husband is not left to the woman concerned, or to her 
parents. It is the duty of the IJrgoundan to inquire what 
marriageable women there may be in the village, and then 
to summon the pattan, or headman of the caste, to the 
spot. The latter, on his arrival, convenes a panchayat of 
the residents, and, with their assistance, selects a bride- 
groom. The parents of the happy couple then fix the 
wedding day, and the ceremony is performed accordingly. 
The marriage of a virgin is called ' kaKanam ' or ' marriage 
proper ' ; that of a widow being styled ' kattigiradu ' or 
* tying ^ (c/. Anglice noose, nuptial knot). Adultery is 
regarded with different degrees of disfavour according to 
the social position of the co-respondents. If a married 
woman, virgin or widow, commits adultery with a man 
of another caste, or if a male Vellalan commits adultery 
with a woman of another caste, the penalty is expulsion 
from caste. Where, however, the paramour belongs to the 
Yellala caste, a caste panchayat is held, and the woman is 
fined Rs. 3-8-9, and the man Rs. 7. After the imposition 
of the fine. Brahman supremacy is recognised, the guru 
having the privilege of administering the ^tirtam^, or 
holy water, to the culprits for their purification. For the 
performance of this rite his fee varies from 4 annas to 12 
rupees. The tirtam may either be administered by the 
guru in person, or may be sent by him to the nattan for 
the purpose. The fine imposed on the offenders is payable 
by -their relatives, however distant ; and, if there be no 
relatives, then the offenders are transported from their 
village to a foreign country. Where the adulteress is a 
married woman, she is permitted to return to her husband, 
taking any issue she may have had by her paramour. In 
^ special cases a widow is permitted to marry her deceased 
husband^s brother. Should a widow re-marry, her issue 
by her former husband belongs to his relatives, and are 
not transferable to the second husband. The same rule 
holds good in successive re-marriages. Where there may 
be no relatives of the deceased husband forthcoming to 



165 

take ctarge of t"he children, the duty of caring for them 
devolves on the IJrgoundan, who is bound to receive and 
protect them. The Yellalars generally bury their dead, 
except in cases where a woman quick with child, or a man 
afflicted with leprosy has died, the bodies in these cases 
being burnt. No ceremony is performed at child-birth ; 
but the little stranger receives a name on the fifteenth day. 
When a girl attains puberty, she is relegated for a month 
to a hut outside the village, where her food is brought 
to her during that period, and she is forbidden to 
leave the hut either day or night. The same menstrual 
and death customs are observed by the Peria Malaialis, 
who bury their dead in the equivalent of a cemetery, and 
mark the site by a mound of earth and stones. At the 
time of the funeral, guns are discharged hy a " firing 
party, " and, at the grave, handfuUs of earth are, as at a 
Christian burial service, thrown over the corpse. 

The Malaialis of the Shevaroy hills snare with nets, and 
shoot big game — deer_, leopards, tigers, bears, and pigs — 
with guns of European manufacture ; and Mr. LeFanu 
narrates that, during the pongal feast, all the Malaialis of 
the Kalrayans go ahunting, or, as they term it, for ' par 
vettai.' ^' Should the Palaiagar fail to bring something 
down, usage requires that the pujari should deprive him 
of his kudimi or top-knot. He generally begs himself off 
the personal degradation, and a servant undergoes the 
operation in his stead. ^' 

In games the Malaialis seem to be deficient, and, 
despite the manual labour which work on coffee estates and 
their own lands imposes on them, they are wanting in 
muscular development. "^ How '', said the possessor of a 
miserable hand-grip of 48 lbs. in reply to a question, 
" can any of us be strong, when we have to work all day 
for the European'"? A rough-and-tumble game, resem- 
bling prisoner's base, called sathurappari vilayattu,is played 
in a square court, of which the lines are marked hj means 
of the feet in the dust, with water on moonlight nights, or 
with chunam (lime wash) in mimicry of the lines of a 
lawn-tennis court. The players, eight in number, divide 
into an in and out side. The square is defended at the 
comers by the former, while the latter try to force theiy 
way within the lines. 



166 

The finest specimen of a Peria Malalali, which I have 
seen, was a man, aged 25, named Dasan Goundan, working 
on a coffee estate, whose record was as follows : — 







Malaiali. 






average. 


Weight . . 


.. 157 lbs. 


99 lbs. 


Height . . 


.. 173-2 cm. 


163-4 cm. 


Span of arms 


.. 179-8 ,, 


172-1 „ 


Chest 


.. 93-5 „ 


79-7 „ 


Shoulders 


42-6 ,, 


38-5 „ 


Hips 


.. 27 „ 


35-5 „ 


Foot, length 


.. 26-7 „ 


25-3 „ 



The leading characteristics of the Malaialis, and their 
personal adornment are summed up in the following 
cases : — 

1. Man, eet. 25. A lean and long-legged individual 
with very thin calves. Height 164 cm. Hairof head clipped 
short on top, long and tied in a knot behind. Diffuse hairs 
over middle of chest. Median strip of hairs on abdomen. 
Clothing consists of white turban decorated with roses, 
brown kambli (blanket) with white border pattern, dlmti 
and langtiti. Bag containing betel-leaf and tobacco slung 
over left shoulder. Carries bill-hook and gourd water- 
vessel. Coffee walking stick. Silver belt round loins. 
Brass ring in lobe of each ear and gold ornament in left 
helix. Silver bangle on each wrist. Two silver rings on 
right ring and little fingers. Silver ring on such second 
toe. 

2. Man_, set. 30. Will not sit on a chair to have his 
head measured, as it would be disrespectful, and make his 
god angry. No objection to standing upon it. Hair ex- 
tensively developed over chest, abdomen, shoulders, back and 
extensor surface of fore-arms. Silver belt round loins. 
Silver armlet on right upper arm, and bangle on each wrist. 
Three silver rings on right ring finger. Two silver rings 
on right little finger. Silver ring on each second toe. 
Stores his money away in the hollow bamboos of his hut. 

3. Man, set. 25. Brass ring in left nostril. Four 
brass rings in right ear lobe ; two in left. Two silver rings 
on right third finger. 

4. Man, aet. 28. Caste spots on forehead and root of 
nose, painted with coal-tar magenta d^es. Smeared with 



167 

olmnam (lime) over both deltoids, chest and neck. Mutton- 
chop whiskers and billy-goat beard. 

5. Man, aet. 30. Woollen anklet round left ankle, 
worn as a charm to drive away pain. 

6. Man, set. 26. Wooden plug in lobe and helix of 
each ear. 

7. Man, aet. 26. Blue sect spot on forehead and blue 
line in mid-frontal region. Wooden plug in lobe of each ear, 
Grold ornament in left helix. Silver bangle on right wrist. 
Two silver rings on right ring and little fingers. Two brass 
rings on left little finger. Silver ring on left second toe. 

Little girl. Gold ornament in right nostril. Silver 
and bead necklets. Tattooed (blue) with mark like masonic 
compasses on forehead, circle surrounded by ring of dots on 
right cheek, sun and half moon on left cheek, spot on chin, 
and unknown symbols outside orbits. Tattooing is done by 
Korava women, who come on circuit from the plains about 
once a month. The devices on the face constitute distinct- 
ive tribal marks. Gold ornament in right nostril. Silver 
and bead necklets. Two leaden bangles on right wrist, and 
a single leaden bangle on left wrist. Two silver rings on 
left fore-finger. Two brass rings on left second finger. 

Woman, aet. 35. Tattooed with the same symbols as 
the preceding on forehead and outside orbits. Sun and half 
moon on right cheek. Rayed circle on left cheek. Scor- 
pion on metacarpus of right thumb. Elaborate geometrical 
and conventional devices, as among women of the plains, 
over right deltoid, both fore-arms, and back of left hand. 
Gold ornament in each ear lobe, and in helix, the latter 
connected vdth a silver link chain fixed into back hair, 
which is tied in a bunch. Gold ring in right nostril, and 
gold ornament in left nostril. Gold tali tied with string 
round neck. Silver and bead necklets with tooth-pick and 
ear-scoop pendent. Two silver armlets on right upper arm. 
Leaden bangle on right wrist. One leaden, and two composi- 
tion bangles on left wrist. Silver ring on each second toe, 
Sdri (dress) made of florid imported printed cotton. Smokes 
tobacco of local cultivation, wrapped in a leaf of Gmelina 
arborea. 

The averages of my Malaiali measurements are, in 
Table XXX, compared with those of two of the Tamil classes 
of Madras City (Vellalas andPallis) and support the theory 
that the Malaiahs emigrated from the Tamil-speaking area 
of the plains at no very remote period. 



168 
TABLE XXIX. 

SUMMARY OF MEASUREMENTS. 
MALAIAlIS. 60. 





Max. 


Min. 


Average. 


Woight ... 


120 


87 


99 


Height 


173-2 


153-2 


163-4 


Height, sitting 


87-2 


77-1 


82 


Height, kneeling 


1257 


111-4 


120 
122-7 


Height to gladiolus 


131 


112-8 


•' 

Span of arms 


188-6 


161 


172-1 


Chest 


90 


74 


79-7 


Middle finger to patella 


14-8 


6-4 


10-8 


Shoulders 


432 


35'1 


38-5 


Cubit 


50-2 


431 


46-6 


Hand, length 


19-6 


16 


17-8 


Hand, breadth 


9-1 


7-4 


8-1 


Hips 


272 


23-6 


25-5 


Foot, length 


26-9 
10-1 


23-1 


25-3 


Foot, breadth 


8-1 


8-8 


Cephalic length 


19-3 
li-6 


16-9 


18-3 


Cephalic breadth 


12-8 


13-6 


Cephalic index 


82-8 


61 


74-3 


Bigoniac 


lC-8 


8-2 


9-6 


Bizygomatic 


13-9 
85-2 


11-7 


12-7 


Maxillo-zygomatic index 


65-6 


75-8 


Nasal height ... 


5-2 


3-9 


4-6 


Nasal breadth ... 


4-1 


3 


3-5 


Nasal index 


100 


63-8 


77-8 



169 
TABLE XXX. 

SUMMARY OF MEASUKEMENTS OF MALAIALIS, 
VELLALAS, AND PALLIS. 





Vellaias. 


Malaialis. 


Pallis. 


Weight 


103-3 


99 


104-6 


Height 


162-4 


163-4 


162-5 


Height, sitting 


83-4 


82-1 


83-6 


Height, kneeling 


119-3 


120 


118-8 


Height to gladiolus ... 


121-9 


122-8 


121-5 


Span of arms ... 


1741 


172-1 


172-6 


Chest 79-8 

1 


79-7 


79-2 


Middle finger to patella ... : 10-4 


10-8 


9-5 

39-4 


; Shoulders 397 


38-5 


i ■ 1 
Cubit 46-9 


46-6 


46-2 


Hand, length ... 


18-3 


17-8 


17-9 


j Hand, breadth 82 


8-1 


8-1 


Hips 


25-6 


25-5 


25-5 


1 Foot, length 


25-7 


25-3 


25-5 


: Foot, breadth ... 


8-7 


8-8 


8-9 


1 Cephalic length 


18-6 


18-3 


18-6 


Cephalic breadth 


13-8 


13-6 


13-6 
73 


Cephalic index 


74-1 


74-3 


Bigoniac ... 


10 


9-6 


9-9 


Bizygomatic ... 


12-9 


12-7 


12-7 


Maxillo-zygomatic index 


76-7 


75-8 


78 


Nasal height ... 


4-7 


^•6 


4-6 


Nasal breadth 


3-4 


3-5 


3-6 


Nasal index _ ... 


73-1 


77-8 


77-9 



170 



SYLLABUS OF A COURSE OF DEMONSTRA- 
TIONS ON PRACTICAL ANTHROPOLOGY 
GIVEN AT THE MUSEUM, OCTOBER 

1898. 



Demonstrations primarily for the benefit of students in 
the University classes of History, which, as laid down by the 
local University, includes some knowledge of ethnology and 
comparative philology. No facilities for practical instruction 
at the colleges. Questions in examination papers, bearing on 
the cephalic index and body measurements, which cannot be 
answered in a style worthy of Degree examination by candi- 
dates who have not seen practical application of methods on 
skull and living subject. Demonstrations, practical and semi- 
popular, to supplement theoretical knowledge acquired from 
books and lectures. 

Anthropology, a branch of natural history, which treats of 
Man and the races of Man, conveniently separated into two 
main divisions : — 

{a) Ethnography, which deals with man as a social and 
intellectual being, his " manners and customs, " knowledge of 
arts and industries, tradition, language, religion, etc. 

Illustrations. Show-cases of tribal jewelry, models of 
dwelling-huts, implements, and photographs. Meriah sacrifice 
(buffaloes sacrificed at present day instead of human beings). 
Toda polyandry and female infanticide. Hook-swinging. 
Dravidian languages. Animistic religion of hill and forest 
tribes. Burial and cremation. Decline of indigenous weav- 
ing industry, and degeneration in Native female dress as 
result of imported colour-printed piece-goods. 

(b) Anthropography, which deals with Man and the 
varieties or " species " of the human family from an animal 
point of view, his structure and the functions of his body. 

Necessary for the purposes of study of anthropology, so 
far as Indian peninsula is concerned, to keep in mind three 
primary links of evidence : — 

{a) Evidence of " prehistoric " people, bearing in mind 
that, like the geologist, the anthropologist does not reckon by 
days or years; and that ''the 6,000 years (Creation said to 



171 

have occurred 4004 B.C.) which were till lately looked on 
as the sum of the world's age are to him but as a unit of 
measurement in the long succession of past ages. '^ Pre- 
historic man in Southern India very largely represented by 
tumuli, cairns, cromlechs and kistvaens of Shevaroy, Palni, 
and Nilgm mountain ranges ; by the large earthenware burial 
urns or sarcophagi found at PalMvaram near Madras, in the 
Tinnevelly district, etc. ; and by the palaeolithic and neolithic 
implements (celts, hammer-stones, scrapers, saws, etc.), con- 
cerning which Mr. R. Bruce Foote is preparing a catalogue 
raisonne based on his own and the museum collections. 

Illustrations. Quartzite implements found in lateritic 
formation at PalMvaram ; stone implements from the Bellary 
district and Shevaroy hills, stored by Natives in small shrines, 
and worshipped as thunderbolts fallen from heaven ; earthen- 
ware sarcophagus, 105 cm. high, from Tinnevelly; earthen- 
ware vessels impressed with rude ornamentatiou . Models of 
large-horned buffaloes, birds, fabulous animals, and bearded 
men on horseback, bronze vessels, and iron arrow or javelin 
heads, excavated on the Nilgiri hills. Evidence that Nilgiris 
were inhabited by a people earlier than the Todas, who 
possess not even the most elementary knowledge of arts and 
industries. Todas live on products of semi-feral buffalo, and 
by soliciting alms (inam) from European visitors to their 
mands. Pottery and human bones (heads and necks of 
femora) from Coimbatore district ; pottery and chank shells 
{Turhinella rapa) from Guntakal. 

(b) Evidence of oldest existing people, now confined to 
jungle tribes dispersed in small communities, for the most 
part in the jungles on the slopes of the mountains. 

Examples : Irulas, Kurumbas, Kadirs, Paniyans, and 
Sholigas, all possessing two marked characters in common, 
viz. {a) shortness of stature ; {h) short, broad nose with 
consequent high nasal index. " Aryans so impressed with the 
flat, snub noses of their enemies, that they often spoke of 
them as the noseless ones " (Risley). 

. Average 

Average f 

CM. CM. 

Paniyans 167-4 95-1 

Kadirs 157-7 89-8 

Kurumbas . . . . . . 157*4 89-6 

Irulas 159-8 84*9 

AA 



172 



(c) Evidence of influence of immigration of foreign 
races, e.g.^ * Aryans/ whose influence may, mutatis mutandis^ 
be argued by analogy with influence of European immi- 
gration (Portuguese, Dutch, British, French, and Danish) on 
indigenous population of Southern India during last five 
centuries, with, as starting poiut, alliances between Portu- 
guese adventurers under Alboquerque with Native women of 
Malabar. 

Important division of anthropography is anthropometry, 
I.e., measurement and estimation of physical data relating to 
people belonging to different races, castes and tribes, by 
means of which their characteristics can be compared together. 
Anthropometry for purposes of criminal identification. 
Bertillonage. Measurements, to be relied on, must be taken 
by experts. Fingerprint records more reliable for criminal 
purposes. 

As a means of gauging physique, three pieces of appa- 
ratus used in museum laboratory, viz., weighing machine, 
dynamometer, spirometer. 

(a) Weighing machine. Eecord actual weight, and 
weight relatively to uniform stature of 100 cm. for purpose 
of comparison of di:fferent castes and tribes. 



Examples 



Brahmans (poorer 



Pariahs 

Pallis 

Kammalans 



A.verage 
height. 


Average 
weight. 


weight 

relative to 

stature = 100, 


CM. 


LBS. 


LBS. 


162-6 


115 


70-8 


162-1 


106 


65-4 


162-5 


104-6 


64-4 


159-7 


100-4 


62-9 



European inhabitants of a hiU station objected to my 
weighing local tribesmen in meat scales of butcher's shop. 

(6) Spirometer, or gasometer, which records play of 
chest or vital capacity, i.e., total quantity of air, which can be 
given out by the most forcible expiration following on a 
most forcible inspiration. Play of chest of far greater im- 
portance than actual girth, as every one knows who has had 
to examine recruits or applicants for life-insurance. No use 
possessing a 40-inch chest if lungs emphysematous, and 
chest walls have not corresponding power of expansion and 
contraction. 



173 

(c) Hand-dynamometer for testing hand grip. 
Examples : 

Average. 

LBS. 

Europeans, Madras City . . . . . , 88 

Sepoys, 28tli Madras Infantry . . . . 80 

Todas 79 

Kotas 70 

Eui-asians (poorer classes), Madras City , . 65 

Note that Todas, who do no manual labour, have a 
greater average grip than the Kotas of the Nilgiris, many of 
whom are blacksmiths or carpenters. Maximum recorded in 
Madras 113 lbs., Native musketry instructor 28th M.I. 

Results of anthropometry depend essentially on calcula- 
tion of averages. In small communities, e.g.^ jungle-tribes, 
measurement of 20 to 25 subjects sufficient for all practical 
purposes. In larger communities, measurement of 40 sub- 
jects yields sufficiently accurate results. Necessary, when 
investigating Eurasians, to measure over a hundred indivi- 
duals owing to great variation in stature and other characters. 
Women, as well as men, should be measured if possible. Not 
always easy to establish confidence among them. Two-anna 
pieces most effective means of conciliation, supplemented by 
cheroots for men, cigarettes for children, and, as a last 
resource, alcohol. Measuring appliances sometimes frighten 
the subjects, especially goniometer for determining facial 
angle, which is mistaken for an instrument of torture. 

Before measuring individual, record notes on personal 
characteristics, ornaments, dress, etc. 

{a) Name. May be derived from a god or goddess, 
personal characteristic, a colour, etc. Natives have equiva- 
lent of Mr. Black, Grreen, Short, Large, and further Mr. 
Big-nose, Mr. Brownish-black, and Mr. &roenish-blue. 

(J) Age. Difficult to estimate accurately in unedu- 
cated classes, as, after childhood, they lose all count of age. 
In taking measurements of Europeans, limits of age 25 to 40. 
Useless to record measurements of individuals not fully 
developed, or of those who have begun to shrink from age. 
In dealing with Natives, I accept 40 as maximum and 20 as 
minimum. Development earlier in the east than in Europe. 

(c) Skin-colour. Fair, as in high-caste Brahmans, 
dark-brown, or even blackish-brown in some jungle-tribes, 
notably Irulas of Nilgiris, who are so dark that it has been, 



174 

jestingly said, charcoal leaves a white mark on them. Skin- 
colour can be roughly described according to number on 
Broca^s colour scale. Typical Dravidiau brown colour not 
represented therein. 

{d) Tattooing. Originally resorted to as ornament, 
and as a means of sexual attraction. In Samoa, for example, 
until a young man is tattooed, he cannot think of marriage. 
Tattooing in blue performed even on dark skins, on which 
blue is invisible, and original object of the practice lost. In 
South India tattooing conspicuously absent on west coast. 
In other parts pattern ranges from simple devices of dots, 
lines, and circles among women of hill-tribes to elaborate 
geometrical and conventional devices among women of the 
plains. Prevalence of religious symbols (chalice, dove, cruci- 
fix, sacred heart, etc.) among Eurasians of west coast. 
Most elaborate patterns executed by Burmese professional 
tattooers on Tamil emigrants to Burma. 

(e) Malformations. Kefer to pinched m feet of Chinese 
women, compression of infant skull among Peruvians, and 
effects of tight-lacing. Contrast Native female and Euro- 
pean waists, undistorted foot of Native, and foot of European 
distorted by badly-fitting boots. In latter long axis of great 
toe not parallel to central axis of foot as in Natives. 

Most chptracteristic malformations in Southern India : — 

1. Circumcision, a Muhammadan practice, but, curiously 
enough, resorted to by Kalians of Madura district, and said 
to be survival of forcible conversion to Muhammadanism. 

2. Dilatation of lobes of ears, which become, from 
stretching, as elastic as india-rubber, and sometimes snap 
across. Native Christian girls in Tinnevelly have long ears 
operated on, and cut short at Mission hospital. Objection 
that short ears make them look like deva-dasis (dancing 
girls; dying out. In statues of Buddha, as far back as 2nd 
century A.D., ears dilated, but void of ornaments. 

3. Chipping and filing of incisor teeth, practised by 
Kadirs of Anaimalai hills. Practice common to some tribes 
in Africa and Malay Archipelago. Whence did Kadirs in- 
herit the custom ? 

4. Amputation of terminal phalanges of ring and little 
fingers, practised on women of Vakkaliga sect in Mysore. 
Operation performed when their children have the ear and^ 
jiose-boring ceremony carried out. 



m 

Odoui- of skin. Missionary Hue could distinguish 
between smell of Tibetan, Hindu, Negro and Chinaman, by 
sense of smell. Characteristic odour of Todas. Mosquitoes 
mercilessly attack Europeans newly arrived in India. Old 
stagers comparatively free from attack, and said to be pro- 
tected by smell of skin, which develops as result of climatic 
conditions, and is distasteful to mosquito. 

Skin of body. Extent of development of hair and areas 
of distribution. Median strip of hair on abdomen common 
Dra-vidian type. Todas characterised by excessive develop- 
ment of hairy system, which may form thick fur on chest. 
Todas have this character in common with Australians and 
Ainus of Japan. 

Hair of head, straight, wavy, curly, frizzly, or woolly. 
Woolly hair, in which little curls interlock, and form tufts 
resembling wool, characteristic of Negroes ; curly or wavy of 
inhabitants of Southern India. Eepeatedly asserted that 
Paniyans of Malabar woolly -haired, and of African descent. 
No evidence. Their hair curly, not woolly. Native hair 
universally black in adult ; frequently light-brown in infancy, 
^lode of doing hair ; dyeing with henna (leaves of Laivsonia 
alba). Photograph of Cheruman with hair in long matted 
plaits in observance of death ceremonial. 

Colour of iris^ or diaphragm of eye. Natives, as a rule, 
have dark eyes, but sometimes blue as inherited character. 
Badaga family, in which grandfather, father, and grand- 
children all had light blue eyes. In Madras City two Native 
albinoes with pink skin, white hair, and pink eyes, from 
absence of pigment. 

Shape of face — long, narrow ; short, broad ; pyra- 
midal, etc. 

Nose. Shape when viewed in profile. Concave nose com- 
mon among Dravidians, due to hollowing out of nasal bones. 

Cheek-bones, flat or prominent. Prominence of cheek- 
bones, and obliquely-set eyes characteristic of Mongolians. 
Irulas of Nilgiris have prominent cheek-bones, but straight 
eyes. 

Prominence of superciliary (brow) ridges. Characteristic 
of Neanderthal skuU, Pithecanthropus, Australians, etc. 
Compare skull of higher ape with that of European. Tamil 
skulls with ridges well developed, and other Australian 
characters. 



176 



Lips, tliin, thick, or everted. Photograph of Kadir with 
upper and lower lips conspicuously everted. 

Lower jaw, prognathous or orthognathous, when viewed 
in profile. 

Measurements recorded in centimetres and millimetres 
(2-54 cm. = l inch), divided into {a) essential; (b) accessory. 
Necessary, for purpose of comparison of various tribes and 
castes of Indian peninsula, to have notes on body-colour, 
and accurate statistics relating to body height, length and 
breadth of head, and height and width of nose. With these 
data to work on, easy to fit any tribe or caste in its correct 
place in the anthropological puzzle. Training necessary 
before measurements, e.g.^ of nose and head, can be accepted. 
Accuracy most essential in smaller measurements. Anthro- 
pometric results based on average of sum of measurements 
of a number of individuals. 

1. Standing height. Classification. Tall, 170 cm. and 
upwards ; middle height 170 — 160 cm. ; short 160 cm. and 
below. In South India no tall race, tribe, or caste, though 
Tod as nearly reach this dignity (average 169*6 cm.). Com- 
pare heights on standard. Patagonians tallest, Stanley's 
dwarfs (African) shortest. Jungle tribes of South India 
are about same height as a number of Australians measured 
in Sydney. Standing height one of the measurements 
used for purposes of criminal identification. 



Examples : 

English 
Todas . . 
Eurasians 
Brahman 8 
Pariahs 
Paniyans 



Average. 

CM. 

170-8 
169-6 
166-6 
162-5 
161-9 
157-4 



2. Relative length of upper extremities, best determined 
by comparison of span of arms outspread at right angles to 
body with stature, and of distance from tip of middle finger 
to patella (knee-cap) in altitude of attention with extensor 
muscles of thigh relaxed . 



Examples : Span of arms. 

Eurasians 
Pariahs 
Kadirs 
Negroes . . 



Average relative to 
stature = 100. 
103-6 
106-2 
JOT 
108-1 



177 



Examples : Middle finger to knee-cap. 





Average relative to 
stature = 100. 


English 
Brahmans 


7-5 

6-2 


Pariahs 


6-8 


Paniyans 


4-6 


Negroes . . 

1 .e^ J -r»/-. 


4-4 

_ -- • 1 • TTV 1 • 1 1 



Hands of long-armed Edma said, in Hindu epic, to have 
reached to his knees. Compare skeleton of Negro with that 
of Orang-utan, in which hands reach far below knees. 

3. Chest. Physical rather than racial test. Measurement 
taken vith tape over nipples with arms above head, and 
hands joined. 



XaTTlDlftS • 


Average relative to 


i^CvJJJl I^X^O • 


stature = 100. 


Paniyans 


51-8 


Kadirs 


61 


Sepoys, 28th M.l. .. 


50-4 


Brahmans 


49-8 


Pariahs 


.. .. 48-9 



Paniyans and Kadirs (jungle-tribes), short of stature 
and deep-chested ; well adapted for mountaineering. 

4. Hip-breadth. Measured across anterior spines of ilia 
(hip-bones). Eatio between breadth of hips and length of 
foot important as distinguishing character between races, 
castes, and tribes of Southern India. Frequently come 
across Natives with foot-length considerably greater than 
hip-breadth. In Europeans hip-breadth considerably in 
excess of foot-length. 

Head measurements estimated with callipers and com- 
passes. 

5. Maximum length and breadth of head. Length from 
glabella or ophryon to occipital point. Breadth : greatest 
breadth across parietal bones. Easiest to measure, on living 
subject, heads clean-shaved in observance of religious cere- 
mony, on which shape of head easily studied. Difficulty in 
measuring heads of Todas, whose dense locks offer obstacle 
to shifting of callipers in search for right spot. 



178 

Examples : 



A verage. 









r 
Length. 

CM. 


Breadth. 

CM. 


■> 


Parialis 

Brahmans (poorer clases). 

Civil Servants, Madras . . 


18-6 
18-6 
19-6 


13-7 
14-2 
15-3 





Other Europeans, Madras. 19-4 15 

Katio of length to breadth represented by cephalic index 
determined by formnla. 

Breadth x 100. 
Length. 

• 
More nearly breadth and length correspond, higher the 
index. Longer the head in proportion to breadth, lower 
the index. Heads range in type from long, narrow (dolicho- 
cephalic) to short, broad (brachycephalic) . Intermediate 
type, mesaticephalic, common among half-breeds. Dolicho- 
cephalic type characteristic of Dravidians. Todas have 
longest, Brahmans broadest heads among Natives of Southern 
India. Character of Dra vidian skull is absence of convexity 
of posterior portion of skull, with result that back of head 
forms a flattened are of a considerable length almost 
at right angles to base of skull. Corresponding shortness of 
head and diminished brain-space. Compare series of Tamil 
skulls with those of European, Jew, etc. Cephalic indices, 
European 747 ; Tamil 74"4 ; Negro 72*5 ; j^.ndamanese 
83*2 ; Sinhalese 85*1 ; Burmese 86*6. Shape of skull does 
not necessarily indicate size of brain. Section of Negro 
skull with large bump on top caused by bony thickening and 
large frontal sinus. Relative sizes of brains, or cranial 
capacity, estimated on skull by plugging foramina (holes) 
with cotton wool, and filling up skull through foramen mag- 
num (large hole at base) with small shot or mustard seed, 
Calculate by pouring shot or seed into glass vessel graduated 
in cubic centimetres. Estimate cubic capacity of skulls of 
various Dravidian classes. 

6. Relation of greatest breadth of facial portion of head 
across zygomatic arches to greatest breadth of lower jaw 
(bigoniac). 

Bigoniac X 100 .„ .. . -, 

— Yi p = maxillo-zygomatic mdex. 

Zygomatic "^ ^ 



179 

7. Facial angle. Estimated with goniometer. Some 
Natives object to holding it between their teeth, as being 
source of pollution. Diagrams of classic Greek head with 
forehead thrown forward, heads of Dra vidian, Negro, and 
Chimpanzee. Facial angle of Dravidian averages from 67° 
to 70°. Dra vidians as a whole orthognathous, i.e., line of 
upper jaw more or less vertical when viewed in profile. 
Negro conspicuously prognathous, i,e., upper jaw projects 
forwards, with corresponding lowering of facial angle. 
Measure true sub-nasal prognathism. Demonstrate facial 
angle of Brahman and Negro skulls. Prognathism indi- 
cated on skull by basi-alveolar length, i.e., distance between 
front of foramen magnum and alveolar point in centre of 
upper jaw. Show Tamil skull, possessing not only promi- 
nent superciliary ridges, but also well-marked prognathism. 
Australian affinities. Use of boomerang by Kullans and 
Maravans of Southern India. Eefer to skulls of Man and 
ape, in which line drawn from glabella to basion indicates 
predominance of cranial or brain-bearing portion in former, 
and of facial portion of latter. Show sections of skull of 
horse and elephant, demonstrating small size of brain rela- 
tively to that of head. 

8. Nose — facial feature, which is most likely to be trans- 
mitted from one generation to another. Nasal character, in 
India, most important factor in differentiation of race, tribe, 
and class, and in determination of pedigree from broad- 
nosed ancestors. Shape not so important as relation of 
height to breadth. 

Breadth x 100 



Height 
Examples : 
Brahman. 



= Nasal index. 



Height 5-5 cm. 1 3-4 X 100 ^, ^ , . , 

Breadth 3-4 „ ] 5^5 = ^^'^ = ^^'^^ ^^^^^' 

Paniyan. 

Height 4 cm.1 4 X 100 

Breadth 4 „ ] 4 = ^^^ = ^^• 



Kurumba. 



Height 3-8 cm. \ 4 X 100 

Breadth 4 ,, J 3^ = ^^^'^ = 



= do. 

Nasal index lowest in Aryans, highest in jungle -tribes. 
Index increases as body height diminishes. High nasal 
iudex, and short stature of individuals belonging to various 



180 



castes and tribes, must be attributed to lasting inflaenoe of 
short, broad-nosed ancestor. 

Average 





Height. 


Nasal 
index. 




CM. 


CM. 


Lambadis (Aryan language) 


164-5 


69-1 


Eurasians 


166-6 


69-5 


Tiyans 


163-7 


75 


Pariahs 


1621 


80 


Kurumbas 


157-6 


87 


Paniyans 


157-4 

T^ 


95-1 



Contrast nasal indices on skulls of European, Tamil, 
and Negro. European 37*5 ; Tamil 57*8 ; Negro 609. In 
absence of nostrils, nasal index never Qearlj so high in 
skeleton as in living subject. 



181 



NOTE ON THE DEAVIDIAN HEAD, 



I recently came across a passage in Taylor^s ' Origin of the 
Aiyans' (Contemporary {Science Series), wherein it is stated 
that " the Todas are fully dolichocephalic, differing in 
this respect from the Dra vidians^ who are brachycephalic/'' 
As this statement is not in accord with my own observations, 
it is right that I should place on record the results obtained 
from the measurement of a large number of ISative tribes 
and castes of Southern India other than Brahmans and 
Muhammadans, which have been investigated by me in the 
coarse of the last few years. The figures, published below, 
show that the average cephahc index of 639 members of 19 
different tribes and castes was 74*1 ; and that in only 19 out 
of the 639 individuals did the index exceed 80. So far, 
then, from the Dravidian beicg separated, from the Todas 
by reason of their higher cephalic index, this index is, in 
the Todas, actually higher than in some of the remaining 
Dravidian peoples, e.g., the Badagas, Pallis, JMuppas, and 
Ambattans. 





!N'umber 


Average 


Number of times 






of men 


cephalic 


in which cephalic 






examined. 


index. 


index exceeded 80. 




Badagas . . 


40 


71-7 






Muppas . . 


24 


72-3 






'I'iyans 


60 


72'8 


1 (80-3) 




PaUis 


40 


72-9 






Kadirs . . 


23 


73 






Todas 


25 


73-3 






Ambattans 


29 


73-4 






Cherumans 


60 


73-4 


2(80-1; 81-9) 




Pariahs . . 


40 


73-6 






Paniyans 


25 


74 


1(81-1) 




Kotas 


25 


74-1 






Yellalas .. 


40 


74-1 


1(81-1) 




Malaialis 


50 


74-3 


1 (82-8) 




Malasars 


23 


74-5 






Kammalans 


40 


75 


5 (80-1 ; 80-1; 
80-2; 80-6; 81 


•5) 


Kurnbas 


25 


75-8 


2 (80-1; 82-1) 




Imlas 


25 


75-8 


1 (80-9) 




Kongas . . 


20 


77 


2(80-3; 81-7) 




Koravas . . 


25 


77-5 


3 (82-4; 83-7; 83 


•7) 



639 



741 19 (max. 83-7), 



l82 

THE LRAVIDIAN PROBLEM. 



The manifold views, which have been brought forward as 
to the origin and place in nature, of the indigenous popu- 
lation of Southern India, are scattered so widely in books, 
manuals, and reports, that it will be convenient, not only 
for my own purpose hereafter, but for the purpose of those 
interested in, or urged by the University syllabus into a 
pseudo-interest in the subject of South Indian cthuology, 
if I bring together the evidence derived from sundry 
authoritative sources. 

The original name for the Dravidian family, it may be 
pointed out, was Tamulic, but the term Dravidian was sub- 
stituted by Bishop Caldwell, in order that the designation 
Tamil might be reserved for the language of that name. 
Drdvida is the adjectival form of Dravida, the Sanskrit name 
for the people occupying the south of the Indian Peninsula 
(the Deccan of European writers), and Tamil is merely 
another form of Dravida. 

Accepting, with one small addition (Mahl, the mother- 
tongue of the Natives of Minicoy Island), the classification 
of Bishop Caldwell, Mr. H. A. Stuart, Census Commis- 
flioner, 1891, gives the following list of the Dravidian 
languages and their dialects, with the numbers of those who 
returned each : — 



Language. 


Dialect. 


Total. 


1 


^Tamil 
Yerukala or 


14,076,989 


Tamil . . < 


Korava 
Irula . . 
^Kasuva 


37,536 

1,614 

316 


Telugu . . 

Malayalam 

Mahl 


' Canarese 


13,653,674 

2,688,332 

3,167 

1,445,650 


Canarese . . 


Badaga 
KuruTTiba 


30,656 

3,742 




"Tulu . . 


461,176 


Tula 


Koraga 
.Bellara 


1,868 
668 


Khond . . 




190,893 



183 



Languaj^e. 


Dialect. 




Total. 




fGond .. 




6^694 


Qond 


Gotte .. 




353 




.Koya .. 




36,503 


T6da 


• . . . 




736 


K6ta 


. . 




i,20l 


Kodaffu 


• . • • 




947 



According to HaeckeP three of the twelve species of 
Man — the Dravidas (Deccans ; Sinhalese) Nubians, aud Medi- 
terranese (Caucasians, Basque, Semites, Indo-Germanic 
tjribes) — *' agree in several characteristics, which seem to 
establish a close relationship between them, and to distin- 
guish them from the remaining species. The chief of these 
characteristics is the strong development of the beard, which, 
in all other species, is either entirely wanting, or but 
very scanty. The hair of their heads is in most cases more 
or less curly. Other characteristics also seem to favour our 
classing them in one main group of curly-haired men (Euplo- 
comi). At present the primaeval species. Homo Dravida, is 
only represented by the Deccan tribes in the southern part 
of Hindustan, and by the neighbouring inhabitants of the 
mountains on the north-east of Ceylon. But, in earlier 
times, this race seems to have occupied the whole of Hindu- 
stan, and to have spread 'even further. It shows, on the one 
hand, traits of relationship to the Australians and Malays ; 
on the other to the Mongols and Mediterranese. Their skin 
is either of a hght or dark brown colour ; in some tribes of 
a yellowish brown, in others almost black brown. The hair 
of their heads is, as in Mediterranese, more or less curled ; 
never quite smooth, like that of the Euthycomi, nor actually 
woolly, like that of the Ulotrichi. The strong development 
of the beard is also like that of the Mediterranese. The 
oval form of face seems partly to be akin to that of the 
Malays, partly to that of the Mediterranese. Their fore- 
head is generally high, their nose prominent and narrow, 
their lips slightly protruding. Their language is now very 
much mixed with Indo-Grermanic elements, but seems to 
have been originally derived from a very peculiar primaeval 
language." 

In the chapter devoted to * Migration and Distribution 
of Organisms,' Haeckel, in referring to the continual chang- 
ing of the distribution of land and water on the surface of 

^ < History of Creation,' 



the earth, says : " The Indian Ocean formed a continent, 
which extended from the Sunda Islands along the southern 
coast of Asia to the east coast ot* Africa. This large 
continent of former times Sclater has called Lemuria, from 
the monkey-like animals which inhabited it, and it is at 
the same time of great importance from being the probable 
cradle of the human race. The important proof, which 
Wallace has furnished by the help of chronological facts, that 
the present Malayan Archipelago consists in reality of two 
completely different divisions, is particularly interesting. 
The western division, the Indo- Malayan Archipelago, com- 
prising the large islands of Borneo, Java, and Sumatra, was 
formerly connected by Malacca with the Asiatic continent, 
and probably also with the Lemurian continent just men- 
tioned. The eastern division, on the other hand, the 
Austro-Malayan Archipelago, comprising Celebes, the 
Moluccas, New Grainea, Solomon's Islands, etc., was formerly 
directly connected with Australia." 

On the evidence of the very close aflSLnities between 
the plants and animals in Africa and India at a very remote 
period, Mr. R. D, Oldham concludes that there was once 
a continuous stretch of dry land connecting South Africa 
and India. '^ In some deposits, " he says [Man. Greol. 
Ind.] " found resting upon the Karoo beds on the coast of 
Natal, 22 out of 35 species of Mollusca and Echinodermata 
collected and specifically identified, are identical with forms 
found in the cretaceous beds of Southern India, the majority 
being Trichinopoli species. From the cretaceous rocks of 
Madagascar six species of cretaceous fossils were examined 
by Mr. R. B. Newton in 1889, of which three are also found 
in the Ariyalur group [Southern India]. The South Afri- 
can beds are clearly coa.st or shallow water deposits, like 
those of India. The great similarity of forms certainly 
suggests continuity of coast line between the two regions, 
and thus supports the view that the land connection between 
South Africa and India, already shown to have existed in 
both the lower and upper Grondwdna periods, was continued 
into cretaceous times." 

It is worthy of note that Haeckel defines the nose of the 
Dravidian as a prominent and narrow organ. For Mr. 
Eisley ^ lays down that, in the Dravidian type, the nose is 
thick and broad, and the formula expressing the propor- 
tionate dimension (nasal index) is higher than in any known 

iK»- — — ■ 

* ' Tribes and Castes of Bengal,' 



PL. XXXI! I 



1 




2 




t-H 


m 


1 


.2 

1 


1 




1 


1 

=1 


1 


.2 

s 
i 




























/ 




























/ 


























/ 




1 

1 






















_y 
























,^ 




— J 






















/ 


^ 


























/ 


























/ 


/ 
























,r^ 


^ 


























/ 


























/ 














/- 
/ 












/ 


/ 






-»-. 








/ 
/ 

/ 












/ 






/ 




~"" 


""x 


X / 


/ 












/ 














\y 












/ 




/ 






















/ 

/ 


N / 




/ 

/ 






















' 


/\ 




/ 




















/ / 


























.' / 






















•~ 








\/ 


























/ \ 


















































J 


J 


















• 








f 

1 






















































> / 


/ 


























/ 

























































Photo-Print.. Survey Office, Madraa 



185 



iface, except the Negro ; and that the typical Dravidian, a^ 
represented by the Mdie Pahdria (nasal index 94'5), has a 
nose as broad in proportion to its length as the Negro, while 
this feature in the Aryan group can fairly bear comparison 
with the noses of sixty-eight Parisians, measured by Topinard, 
which gave an average of 69*4. In this connection a study 
of table XXXIII, based on the results of my measarements, is 
not without interest. In this table I have brought together, 
for the purpose of comparisoo, the nasal indices (lined) and 
stature (dotted) of jungle tribes, Dravidians of the plains, 
and the nomad Lambadis, who speak an Aryan language. 
The table demonstrates very clearly a progressive and 
unbroken series ranging from the typical jungle-man, whom 
I may term archi-Dra vidian, dark-skinned, short of stature, 
and platyrhine, through various mixed Dravidian classes of 
the plains, to the comparatively fair-skinned, leptorhine 
Lambddi. The influence of crossing through many ages on 
the Dravidian type is referred to hereafter. Bat I may draw 
attention to the indisputable fact that it is to the lasting 
influence of a broad nosed ancestor, such as is represented 
at the present day by the jnngle tribes, that the very high 
nasal index and short stature of many of the modern 
inhabitants of Southern India (Dravidian, Muhammadan, 
Eurasian, and ' Aryan ') must be attributed. Viewed in the 
light of this remark, the connection between the following 
mixed collection of individuals, all of very dark colour, short 
of stature, and with nasal index exceeding 90, calls for no 
further explanation : — 

Nasal 
Index. 



Stature. 



CM. 



Saiyad Muhammadan . 




. . 160 


91-;} 


VeUala 




..154-8 


91-6 


Muppa 




.. 151-2 


91-9 


Malaiali 




.. 158-8 


92-5 


Konga . , 




. 157 


92-7 


Kadir 




. 156-5 


92-7 


Pattar Brahman 




, 157-6 


92-9 


Kurumba 




. 169-6 


93-2 


Malasar 




. 149-2 


95 


Smarta Brahman 




. 159 


95-1 


Palli 




. 157-8 


95-1 


Irula 




. . 155-4 


951 


Paniyan 




. 157-8 


95-1 


Irula 




. 158-6 


100 


Tamil Pariah . . 




. 160 


105 


Paniyau 




. 158-8 


105-3 


Kadir 




. 148-6 


110-5 



186 



By Huxley '^ the races of mankind are divided into two 
primary divisions : the Ulotriclii with crisp or woolly hair 
(Negros ; Negritos), and the Leiotrichi with smooth hair. 
And the Dra vidians are included in the Australioid group 
of the Leiotrichi " with dark skin, hair, and eyes, wavy hlack 
hair, and eminently long, prognathous skulls, with well- 
developed brow ridges, who are found in Australia and in 
the Dekhan.'^ There is, in the collection of the Eoyal 
College of Surgeons' Museum, an exceedingly interesting 
' Hindu ' skull from Southern India, conspicuously dolicho- 
cephalic, and with highly developed superciliary ridges. Some 
of the recorded measurements of this skull are as follows : — 



Length 

Breadth 

Cephalic index 

Nasal height 
, , breadth 
,, index . . 



19-6 CM. 

132 

67-3 

4*8 CM. 

2-5 „ 
521 



Another * Hindu ' skull, in the collection of the Madras 
Museum, with similar marked development of the super- 
ciliary ridges, has the following measurements : — 
Cephalic length . . . . . . 18*4 cm. 



breadth 
, , index 
Nasal height 
,, breadth 
index 



13-8 „ 
75 
4-9 CM. 

2-1 „ 

42-8 



I was quite recently much impressed by a Tamil Pariah, 
who by a happy chance came before me for examination, 
and of whom the following measurements were recorded : — 

Height 161-8 CM. 

Cephalic length 



breadth 
,, index 
Nasal height 
, , breadth 
index 



19-7 „ 
14-2 „ 
72-1 

4*4 CM. 

4-2 „ 
95-5 „ 



With his prominent superciliary ridges and brushy eye- 
brows, hairy chest, abdomen, back, arms, and legs, and long, 
dolichocephalic head, this man might, save for his broad 
nose, have passed for a Toda of short stature, such as is 
frequently met with among the Toda community. 



Anatomy of Vertebrated Animals.' 



187 

I am unable to subscribe to the general prognathism of 
the Dravidian tribes of Southern India, though there" are 
some notable exceptions. Wavy and curly black hair are 
common types, but I have seen no head of hair to which the 
term woolly could be correctly applied. 

By Flower and Lydekker ^ a white division of Man, 
called the Caucasian or Eurafrican, is made to include 
Huxley's Xanthochroi (blonde type) and Melanochroi (black 
hair and eyes, and skin of almost all shades from white to 
black) ; and the Melanochroi are said to " comprise the 
greater majority of the inhabitants of Southern Europe, 
Northern Africa, and South West Asia, and consist mainly 
of the Aryan, Semitic, and Hamitic families. The Dravidi- 
ans of India, the Yeddabs of Ceylon, and probably the Ainos 
of Japan, and the Maoutze of China, also belong to this race, 
which may have contributed something to the mixed charac- 
ter of some tribes of Indo-China ^ and the Polynesian islands, 
and have given at least the characters of the hair to the 
otherwise Negroid inhabitants of Australia. In Southern 
India they are largely mixed with a Negrito element, and 
in Africa, where their habitat becomes coterminous with 
that of the Negroes, numerous cross-races have sprung 
np between them all along the frontier line. The ancient 
Egyptians were nearly pure Melanochroi." 

In describing the ' Hindu type,' Topinard ^ divides the 
population of the Indian peninsula into three strata, viz., the 
Black, the Mongolian, and the Aryan. "The remnants of 
the first," he says, " are at the present time shut up in the 
mountains of Central India under the name of Bhils, Mahairs, 
Grhonds, and Khonds ; and in the south under that of 
Yenadis, Maravers, Kurumbas, Veddahs, etc. Its primitive 
characters, apart from its black colour and low stature, are 
difiicult to discover, but it is to be noticed that travellers do 
not speak of woolly hair in India. The second has spread 
over the plateaux of Central India by two lines of way, one 
to the north-east, the other to the north-west. The rem- 
nants of the first invasion are seen in the Dravidian or 
Tamil tribes, and those of the second in the Jhats. The third 
more recent, and more important as to quality than as to 

* Mammals, living and extinct. 

* Vide Madras Museum Bull. No. 2, Vol. II, p. 119, nq : also Tootl- 
chipping, Kfldirs, antea, p. 143. 

* ' Anthropology.' Translation. 

C C 



188 

number, was the Aryan." In speaking further of the Austra- 
lian type, characterised hy a combination of smooth hair with 
Negroid features, Topinard states that "it is clear that th& 
Australians might very well be the result of the cross between 
one race with smooth hair from some other place, and a really 
Negro and autochthonous race. The opinions expressed by 
Huxley are in harmony with this hypothesis. He says the 
Australians are identical with the ancient inhabitants of 
the Deccan. The features of the present blacks in India, 
and the characters which the Dravidian and Australian lan- 
guages have in common, tend to assimilate them. The 
existence of the boomerang ^ in the two countries, and some 
remnants of caste in Australia, help to support the opinion. 
But the state of extreme misery of the inferior tribes may 
equally explain some of the physical differences which they 
present. Woolly hair appears now to be but seldom seen. A 
few examples have been noticed in the York peninsula and the 
north-west point, which might be accounted for by the immi- 
gration of Papuans from New G-uinea, and in the south by 
the passage over to the other side of Behring's Straits of some 
Tasmanians to the continent. On the other hand, on study- 
ing the Australian skull, we notice tolerably-marked differ- 
ences of type, and it is certain that the Polynesians landed at 
some period or other in the north-west, and the Malays in the 
north-east. Lastly, if the Australians are thorough Hindoos 
as regards their hair, they are Melanesians, or, if you will, new 
Hebrideans, new Caledonian Negroes, in every other respect. 
The question may, therefore, be left. We are still in ignor- 
ance as to whether the present Australian race took its origin 
on the spot, with the characters that we admit as belonging to 
it, or whether, on the contrary, it was altogether constituted 
in Asia, or whether it is a cross race, and, in that case, of what 
elements it is composed. Those which we might consider in 
India as of the same race are the Bhils, Grhonds, Khonds, 
Mahairs, Varalis, Mundas ; Yeddahs, Yanadis, and Maravers 
of the coast of Coromandel. Among the Todas of the Nil- 
gherries, and, strangely enough, farther on towards the north, 

^ Vide Opperfc, Journal, Madras Literatare Society, Yol. XXV, Boo- 
merangs are used by the Tamil Maravars and Kalians when hunting deer. 
The Madras Museum collection contains three (two ivory, one wooden) 
from, the Tanjore armoury. In the arsenal of the Pudukkdttai Raja a 
stock of wooden boomer-dngs is always kept. Their name in Tamil is valai 
tadi(bent stick). When thrown, a whirling motion is imparted to the 
weapon, which causes it to return to the place from which it was thrown. 
The Natives are well acquainted with this peculiar fact. 



189 

among certain of the Ainns, two of the fundamental Austra- 
lian traits are met with ; namely, the very projecting super- 
ciliary arch, and the abundant hair over the whole body. In 
the same Nilgherry hills, in the desired conditions for con- 
cealing the remnants of ancient races, two tribes, the Irulas 
and Kurumbas, especially afford matter for reflection." And 
to these must be added the Paniyans, Kadirs, Sholigas, and 
other jungle tribes, in the investigation of which I am at 
present interested. Finally, Topinard points out, as a some- 
what important piece of evidence, that, in the west, about 
Madagascar, and the point of Aden in Africa, there are black 
tribes ^\dth smooth hair, or, at all events, large numbers of 
individuals who have it, mingled particularly among the 
Somalis and the Grallas, in the region where M. Broca has an 
idea that some dark and not Negro race, now extinct, once 
existed. He also refers, in a sketch of ethnic characters, to 
the institution of caste, which is regularly established in India, 
and found in Australia in a rudimentary state, as well as in 
some parts of the Malay Peninsula. 

At the last meeting of the British Association, Mr. 
W. Crooke gave expression to the view that the Dravidians 
represent an emigration from the African continent, and 
discounted the theory that the Aryans drove the ' aboriginal ' 
inhabitants into the jungles with the suggestion that the 
Aryan invasion was more social than racial, viz., that what 
India borrowed from the Aryans was manners and customs. 
According to this view it must have been reforming ' aborigi- 
nies ' who gained the ascendancy in India, rather than new 
comers ; and those of the ' aborigines ' who clung to their old 
ways got left behind in the struggle for existence. 

In an article devoted to the Australians, Professor E. 
Semon writes as follows^ : " We must, without hesitation, pre- 
sume that the ancestors of the Australians stood, at the time 
of their immigration to the continent, on a lower rung of 
culture than their living representatives of to-day. They 
must have brought with them their only domestic animal, the 
Dingo dog, for they could not have found it in Australia, 
which contains marsupials, but no placental mammals. 
A^Tience, and in what manner the immigration took place, it 
is difficult to determine. In the neighbouring quarter of 
the globe there lives no race, w^hich is closely related to the 
Australians. Their nearest neighbours, the Papuans of New 

8 Die Nattir. No. 20, 17 May, 1896. 



190 

Gruinoa, the Malays of the Sunda Islands, and the Maoris of 
New Zealand, stand in no close relationship to them. On 
the other hand, we find further away, among the Dravidian 
aborigines of India, types which remind us forcibly of the 
Australians in their anthropological characters. In drawing 
attention to the resemblance of the hill-tribes of the Deccan to 
the Australians, Huxley says : ' An ordinary cooly, such as 
one can see among the sailors of any newly-arrived East 
Indian vessel, w^ould, if stripped, pass very well for an Austra- 
lian, although the skull and lower jaw are generally less 
coarse.' Huxley here goes a little too far in his accentuation 
of the similarity of type. We are, however, undoubtedly con- 
fronted with a number of characters — skull formation, features, 
wavy curled hair — in common between the Australians and 
Dravidians, which gain in importance from the fact that, by 
the researches of Norris, Bleek, and Caldwell, a number of 
points of resemblance between the Australian and Dravi- 
dian languages have been discovered, and this despite the fact 
that the homes of the two races are so far apart, and that a 
number of races are wedged in between them, whose languages 
have no relationship whatever to either the Dravidian or 
Australian. 

" There is much that speaks in favour of the view that the 
Australians and Dravidians sprang from a common main 
branch of the human race. According to the laborious 
researches of Paul and Fritz Sarasin, the Veddas of India and 
Ceylon, whom one might call pre-Dravidians, would represent 
an off-shoot from this main stem. When they branched off, 
they stood on a very low rung ot development, and seem to 
have made hardly any progress , worth mentioning. The 
remarkable ainus of Japan, and the ' Khmers ' and Chams of 
Cambogia seem to be scattered off-shoots of the Dravidian- 
Australian main branch. 

" The Caucasians have probably sprung from the Dravi- 
dians, and we, Europeans, should, therefore, have to look upon 
the low savages of Australia as relations, very distant it is 
true, but yet nearer related to us than Negroes, Malays, and 
Mongols. It has been pointed out by several observers that 
the features of the Australians, with all their ugliness and 
coarseness, frequently remind one of low types of the Cauca- 
sian features. To those who regard it as a degradation to 
the human race, when science draws the conclusion that man 
has sprung from the brute inhabitants of the earth, and 
stands in close relationship with the ape-family, the reflection 
will be also unpleasant that, among the human species, the 



191 

Caucasians, who, for several thousand years, have progressed 
so splendidly and so far, have as near relations the nomad 
savages of Australia, and the Yeddahs who are designated 
monkeys in the Hindu legend. To science the only consider- 
ation is whether the conclusions are correct, not whether 
they are according to the personal taste of the few. It is 
difficult to understand how there can be anything degrading 
in belonging to a race, which, from crude beginnings, has 
worked itself up to the still rather modest level of modem 
Caucasian civilisation through stages, which are represented 
by the Yeddahs, Australians, and Dravidians. On the other 
hand, there is something sublime in the conviction that the 
development of the human race, both bodily and intellectual, 
is as yet unfinished, and that our present state of civilisation, 
burthened with innumerable imperfections, will be regarded 
by our descendants in the far future as a long surpassed one, 
as derisively as we now look down on the state of civilisation 
and culture of the Australians and V^eddahs." 

In dealing with the Australian problem, Mr. A. H. Keane ^ 
refers to the time when Australia formed almost continuous 
land with the African continent, and to its accessibility on the 
north and north-west to primitive migration both from India 
and Papuasia. " That such migrations," he says, " took 
place, scarcely admits of a doubt, and the Eev. John Mathew ^^ 
concludes that the continent was first occupied by a homo- 
geneous branch of the Papuan race either from New Gruinea 
or Malaysia, and that these first arrivals, to be regarded as 
true aborigines, passed into Tasmania, which at that time 
probably formed continuous land with Australia. Thus the 
now extinct Tasmanians would represent the primitive type, 
which, in Australia, became modified, but not effaced, by 
crossing with later immigrants, chiefly from India. These are 
identified, as they have been by other ethnologists, with the 
Dravidians, and the writer remarks that ' although the 
Australians are still in a state of savagery, and the Dravidians 
of India have been for many ages a people civilized in a great 
measure, and possessed of literature, the two peoples are 
affiliated by deeply-marked characteristics in their social 
system as shown by the boomerang, which unless locally 
evolved, must have been introduced from India. But the 
variations in the physical characters of the Natives appear to 
be too great to be accounted for by a single graft ; hence 

9 ' Ethnology,' 1896. 

loProc. R. SoG. N. 8. Wales, XXIII, part III. 

r> D 



192 

Malays also are introduced from the Eastern Archipelago, 
which would explain both the straight hair in many districts, 
and a number of pure Malay words in several of the native 
languages." Dealing later with the ethnical relations of the 
Dravidas, Mr. Keane says that " although they preceded 
the Aryan-speaking Hindus, they are not the true aborigines 
of the Deccan, for they were themselves preceded by dark 
peoples, probably of aberrant Negrito type. They are usually 
regarded as a Mongoloid people, who entered India from the 
north-west, leaving on the route the Brahuis of Baluchistan, 
whose language shows some remote resemblance to Dravidian. 
But at present the type cannot be called Mongolic ; it scarcely 
differs from the average Hindu, except in some districts, 
where it has been somewhat modified by contact with the 
Kolarians and dark aborigines .... It would seem 
that the position of the Indian Dravidas is somewhat analo- 
gous to the Caucasic type, and both have accepted Aryan 
culture, while preserving intact their non- Aryan speech." 

Placing the Dravidians with the Negrito and Negrito- 
Papuan families of the Negrito section of the Indo-Melane- 
sian branch of the Negro or Ethiopian trunk, de Quatrefages ^^ 
lays special stress on the influence of crossing (metissage), 
while recognising that the Kurumbas, and other jungle tribes, 
have preserved their purity of blood and ethnological charac- 
ters more or less completely. Which purity of blood and 
preservation of characters are unhappily commencing to 
degenerate as the result of the opening up of the jungles for 
tea and coffee estates, and the contact with more civilised 
tribes and races, black and white. " In the Gangetic penin- 
sula, " de Quatrefages says, *' and the whole oi India to the 
foot of the Himalayas, this crossing is carried out on an 
immense scale. All the so-called Dravidian population, and 
many others known by different names, indicate, by their 
physical characters, the presence of a black ethnological 
element. Documents of all sorts, photographs, skulls, etc., 
testify that this element is almost constantly Negrito. The 
rOle played in this admixture by the three fundamental types 
is very unequal, and varies according to the country which 
one examines. But, wherever Dravidians exist, the Blacks 
constitute the foundation of the half-breed race. Most fre- 
quently it is the yellow race, represented by the Thibetans, 
which has united with them. The white race only ranks in 

" * Histoire g^nerale des Races Humaines.' 



193 

the third line. The legend of Edma permits us to allow that 
the Aryans, on their arrival in Southern India, did not disdain 
to contract political alliances with these little black people. ^^ 
In India most of the Dravidian tribes appear to owe their 
characters to an admixture of black and yellow. In the 
valleys of the Upper Brahmaputra, and many other localities, 
the influence of Thibetan races is very marked. The general 
type has been altered by crossing with Brdhmanical Aryans, 
and other white races. It is this ensemble of half-caste 
races, all haviug Negrito blood in common, possibly also 
some traces of Australian blood, that I propose to designate 
by the name of Dravidians. In a region invaded a thousand 
times since the most remote times, many of the peoples 
cannot but have been profoundly modified from an ethnolog- 
ical point of view, though preserving their languages ; while 
others forgot the language of their fathers, whose essential 
physical characters they, however, preserved.'^ 

Turning now to writers, who have spent a great part of 
their lives in the Madras Presidency. In the ' Manual of the 
Administration ' of this Presidency, Dr. C. Maclean writes as 
foUows : " The history proper of the south of India may be 
held to begin with the Hindu dynasties formed by a more or 
less intimate admixture of the Aryan and Dravidian systems 
of Government. But, prior to that, three stages of historical 
knowledge are recognizable ; first, as to such aboriginal period 
as there may have been prior to the Dravidian ; secondly, as 
to the period when the Aryans had begun to impose their 
religion and customs upon the Dravidians, but the time 
indicated by the early dynasties had not yet been reached. 
Greology and natural history alike make it certain that, at a 
time within the bounds of human knowledge, Southern India 
did not form part of Asia. A large southern continent, of 
which this country once formed part, has ever been assumed 
as necessary to account for the different circumstances. The 
Sanscrit Pooranic writers, the Ceylon Boodhists, and the 
local traditions of the West Coast, all indicate a great 
disturbance of the point of the Peninsula and Ceylon within 

^^ How great must kave been the influence of hybridisation on the popu- 
lation of Southern India, when carried on through ages, is accentuated by 
reference to the practical outcome of only a few centuries of contact 
between Europeans and Natives, which has resulted in the creation and 
establishment of a fertile half-breed race, numbering, according to tho 
Madras Presidency Census return, 1891, 26,648— fide Madras Museum 
Bulletin, Vol. II, No. 2, 1898. 



194 

recent times. ^^ Investigations in relation to race show it to 
be by no means impossible that Southern India was once 
the passage-ground, by which the ancient progenitors of 
Northern and Mediterranean races proceeded to the parts of 
the globe which they now inhabit. In tliis part of the world, 
as in others^ antiquarian remains show the existence of 
peoples, who used successively implements of unwrought 
stone, of wrought stone, and of metal fashioned in the most 
primitive manner.^^ These tribes have also left cairns and 
stone circles indicating burial places. It has been usual to set 
these down as earlier than Dravidian. But the hill Coorum- 
bar of the Pulmanair plateau, who are only a detached 
portion of the oldest known Tamulian population, erect 
dolmens to this day. The sepulchral urns of Tinnevelly 
may be earlier than Dravidian, or they may be Dravidian. 
It has been stated that the wild tribes of Southern India 
are physiologically of an earlier type than the Dravidian 
tribes. This position has been found not to be proved, 
the conclusions being of a negative nature. The evidence 
of the grammatical structure of language is to be relied on 
as a clearly distinctive mark of a population, but, from this 
point of view, it appears that there are more signs of the 
great lapse of time than of previous populations. The 
grammar of the south of India is exclusively Dravidian, and 
bears no trace of ever having been anything else. The hill, 
forest, and Pariah tribes use the Dravidian forms of 
grammar and inflection .... The Dravidians, a very 
primeval race,^^ take a by no means low place in the con- 
jectural history of humanity. They have aflBnities with the 
Australian aborigines, which would probably connect their 
earliest origin with that people. But they have emerged 

^^ " It is evident that, durinjs^ much of the tertiary period, Ceylon and 
South India were bounded on the north by a considerable extent of sea, 
and probably formed part of an extensive southern continent or great 
island. The very numerous and remarkable cases of affinity with Malaya 
require, however, some closer approximation to these islands, which 
probably occurred at a later period." Wallace, ' Geographical Distribution 
of Animals.' 

^^ Vide Breeks' 'Primitive Tribes and Monuments of the Nilgiris**; 
Phillips ' Tumuli of the Salem district ' ; Rea, ' Prehistoric Burial Places 
in Southern India ' ; and the Madras Museum collection. Mr. R. Bruce 
Foote has, I am happy to say, in hand the preparation of a catalogue 
raisonn6 of his magnificent collection of Indian ' Prehistoric Implements, 
Ac' 

^» Sir John Evans, in his Presidential address at the meeting of the 
British Association, 1897, referred to the possibility of Southern India 
jseing * the cradle of the human race.' 



195 

from the lower type, and acquired characteristics putting* 
them at no great distance in the physiological scale from the 
later developed Semitic and Caucasian races. As now 
known, they are not straight-haired like the Malays and 
Mongolians, but more or less curly -haired, like both of the 
last named. The theory that they came to India from 
without, passing over the north-west boundary, and through 
8cinde, does not rest on sufficient evidence. If the Dravi- 
dians moved into India at all, it may be more reasonably 
conjectured that they came from the south or the east. 

*' About 2,000 or 3,000 years B.C., perhaps afc the 
beginning of what has been styled the Kaliyog, or 3101 B.C., 
the Sanscrit-speaking Aryans came into India from their 
original home at the sources of the Oxus in the neighbour- 
hood of Bokhara, where they had resided till the period when 
the Iranic branch of the tribe went to the south-east. The 
Indie branch of the Aryans advanced down the basins of the 
Indus and the Ganges to the estuary of both rivers ; and 
then proceeded by dilferent routes into the lower and middle 
range of the Himalaya, up the valley of Assam, down the Coast 
of the Bay of Bengal as far as Chicacole in the Granjdm 
district, across the rivers Nerbudda and Mahanuddy into 
Central India, and along the West Coast as far south as Groa. 
Another portion of the same branch went by sea to Ceylon, 
and laid the foundation of the Singhalese civilization." 

Adopting a novel classification. Dr. Maclean, in assuming 
that there are no living representatives in Southern India 
of any race of a wholly pre-Dravidian character, sub-divides 
the Dra vidians into pre-Tamulian and Tamulian, to designate 
two branches of the same family, one older or less civilised 
than the other. 

Bishop CaldwelP®, in summing up the question whether 
the forest tribes, the lower castes, and the so-called *' outcasts'* 
which speak the Dravidian languages, are of the same origin 
and of the same race as the Dravidians of the higher castes, 
expresses his opinion that the supposition that the lower 
castes in the Dravidian provinces belong to a different race 
from the higher, appears to him untenable. " It seems/' he 
says, " safer to hold that all the indigenous tribes, who were 
found by the Aryans in Southern India, belonged substan- 
tially to one and the same race. It is probable enough that 
the Dravidians were broken up into tribes before the Aryan 



* Comparative Grammar of the Dravidian Languages.' 



i96 

immigration, and that tlie distinctions, not only of richer 
and poorer, but also of master and slave, had already come 
into existence among them. Those distinctions may have 
formed the foundation of the caste system, which their 
Brahmanical civilisers built up, and which was moulded by 
degrees into an exact counterpart of the caste system of 
Northern India." 

In his ' Original Inhabitants of Bharatavarsha or India,' 
Dr. G. Oppert contends that the names of many Dravidian 
tribes are derived from the Dravidian roots * mal ' and * ku * 
both meaning a mountain. He thus traces an ultimate 
philological identity between the names of tribes and castes 
scattered throughout India, such as the Mdlas, Malay dlis, 
and Maravars ; the Kois, Khonds, Gronds, Koravas, Kurum- 
bas, Kodagus ; and very many others. The relation of the 
existing hill and jungle tribes to the inhabitants of the plains 
is discussed in the Transactions of the Ethnological Society^' 
by Mr. J. Orawfurd, who there challenges the theory which 
supposes the rade mountaineers to be the sole ' aborigines ' 
of India, while it imagines the civilised inhabitants to be 
intrusive strangers, who, in a remote antiquity, invaded 
India, conquered it, and settled in it under the imposed 
names of Aryans for Northern and Turanian for Southern 
India. " To suppose," Mr. Orawfurd writes, " so great 
and fertile a region of the earth, and one consequently, so 
favourable to the promotion of an early civilisation, to have 
been, within the historical period, destitute of any other 
original inhabitants than the few rude tribes now confined 
to its least favourable localities, until it came to be peopled 
by immigrant strangers from remote countries, is contrary to 
what is known to be the case, in all other portions of the 
globe. For my own part, I am satisfied that both the moun- 
taineers and the inhabitants of the open plains and valleys 
are alike Natives of the soil and of the same race, allowance 
being made for such varieties of type as are found to exist 
in other large regions of the earth. . . . It is an opinion 
very generally entertained by Indian ethnologists that the 
races which they suppose to be the aborigines of India 
partake of a Negro character, in contradistinction to the 
civilised people of the low-lands ; but this is a notion, for 
which I am satisfied there is no ground whatever. Through- 
out the continent of India no Negro or Negroid race has 

"Vol. VI, 1868— The supposed Aborigines of India as distinguished 
from its Civilised Inhabitants. 



197 

ever been found to exist. Wherever Negritos or Negroid 
races exist, their presence is unmistakably pronounced, as 
in the case of the Andaman Islands.''' 

In an article entitled, "Caste and Colour" Mr. C. 
Johnston (Calcutta Eeview, 1895) divides the people of India 
on a simple colour basis into four or five principal types, v^ith 
a series of intermediate types gradually melting into each 
other. These principal types are — 

1. Fair, almost white. Brahman. 

2. Eed. E^jput. 

3. Yellow. Purest examples, the Kocch and Santali 

in lower Bengal, and the S§.vara in Madras. 

4. Black, or nearly black. Dravidian. 

" We must," Mr. Johnston says, " content ourselves for 
the present with saying that it seems fairly certain that 
there is a great ethnical family in Southern India, distin- 
guished primarily by black or almost black skin ; that this 
ethnical family cannot number less than a hundred milhon 
individuals ; and that this great ethnical family is not related 
to any other ethnical family in Asia, but is isolated and 
distinct ; so that we must seek for the ethnical kindred of the 
black Dravidian, if such kindred exist, outside Asia altogether, 
in some direction at present undermined. ... It has 
for a long time been conceded that the fourth caste of th@ 
Brahmanical polity was drawn from this black race." 



i^ 



Conversion Table, 



In. 


Cm, 


Ft. 


In. 


Cm. 




2-54, 


I 





30-48 


2 


5-08 


1 


6 


45-72 


3 


7-62 


2 





60-96 


* 


1016 


2 


6 


76-20 


5 


12-70 


3 





91-44 


6 


15-24 


3 


6 


106-68 


7 


17-78 


4 





121-92 


8 


20-32 


4 


6 


137-16 


9 


22-86 


5 





152-40 


10 


35-40 


5 


6 


167-64 


11 


27-94 


6 





182-88 


12 


30-48 


6 


6 


19812 



AGENTS FOR THE SALE OF GOVERNMENT 
PUBLICATIONS. 



IN INDIA. 



Newman & Co., Calcutta. 
Thacker, Spink & Co., Calcutta. 
HiGGiNBOTHAM & Co., Mount Eoad, Madras. 
Thacker & Co. (Limited), Bombay. 
E. Seymour Halb, Bombay. 



IN LONDON, 

E. A. Arnold, 37, Bedford Street, Strand, W.C. 

Constable & Co., 2, Whitehall Gardens, S.W. 

Sampson Low, Marston & Co., St. Dunstan's House, Fetter 
Lane, E.C. 

P. S. King & Son, 9, Bridge Street, Westminstejr, S.W. 

LuzAC & Co., 46, Great Eussell Street, W.C. 

Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Charing Cross Boad, 
W.C. 

B. CluARiTCH, 15, Piccadilly, W. 



ON THE CONTINENT. 

Friedlander & Sohn, 11, Carlstrasse, Berlin. 

Otto Harrassowitz, Leipzig. 

Karl W. Hiersemann, Leipzig. 

Ernest Leroux, 28, Rue Bonaparte, Paris. 

Martinus Nijhoef, The Hague, Holland. 



WB 


mS^H^^K^^F '^P''^^^' 


m^M^^^^^ * t 










K--— - "c '^Mnii&'mMl '^"^ X 


^^-^^^nrlHfcJ^n 1 


kjB3k|PM 









^ # A 



* >J 9 J ^